It has large and round eyes, sitting above a pointed snout. The dorsal profile is flat to convex between the eyes and the posterior end of the upper mandible is exposed when the mouth is closed forming a bony knob.
The closed mouth reaches beyond the rear margin of the eye. It has a rounded properly which is finely serrated but does not have any spines or notches.
The colored phase is the normal red or brownish orange above a line which runs from the tip of the snout to the rear rays of the dorsal fin and pale below this. In the red and colored morphs, there is a patterning of small blue spots with far margins which covers the head and body.
In the yellow morph these spots are restricted to the head and the anterior part of the body and there are less of them. There are two small black spots on top of caudal peduncle and another two at tip of lower jaw which are present in all three-colour morphs.
At night, they generally adopt a pale coloration with irregular vertical bars and a dark forked line between the eyes. When breeding the male has a horizontal dark brown band which runs from the lower end of base of the pectoral fin to the tip of the caudal fin, a black margin to the portrayed part of the dorsal fin, a dark stripe through eye and a white spot on the body near the center of the base of the dorsal fin.
Cephalopods vulva are found in coral reefs and clear water, at depths of 1 to 70 meters (3.3 to 229.7 ft), and it may also be found over rocks and coral heads, but only infrequently in the water column. It emerges at night to feed on small fish and crustaceans.
The Coney is a protogynous hermaphrodite, the females attain sexual maturity at a total length of 16 centimeters (6.3 in) and when they attain a total length of 20 centimeters (7.9 in) they begin to change sex to become males. In Bermuda, females have been reported to be mature at 4 years old.
Small groups made up a male and a number of females take part in the spawning. The breeding season can be as long as ten months off central Brazil although briefer breeding seasons were noted in other areas.
They are thought to grow most rapidly in their early life, attaining around 60% of their possible maximum size in their first year, then the growth rate reduces markedly over the remainder of its life. Cephalopods vulva is a small species which means that it is of little interest to commercial fisheries although it appears in markets throughout the West Indies where it is caught by hook and line and traps.
It is commercially fished for in Brazil and is exported It is also captured as juveniles for the aquarium trade. ^ a b c d e f Free, Trainer and Paul, Daniel, eds.
Shore fishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus Tamara Synonyms Promiscuous Tamara (Lichtenstein, 1822) Serra nus Tamara Lichtenstein, 1822 Serra nus Menelik Valentines, 1828 Serra nus gales J.P. Müller & Trochee, 1848 Serra nus guava Play, 1860 Promiscuous one Ehrenberg, 1915 Promiscuous ditto Roux & Collision, 1954 The Atlantic Goliath grouper or Tamara (Epimetheus Tamara), also known as the Jewish, is a large saltwater fish of the grouper family found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths from 5 to 50 m (16 to 164 ft).
Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast. On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts.
In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal. Young Atlantic Goliath groupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers.
They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb). The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961.
Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic Goliath grouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen. It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature.
They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations. Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline.
The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico. The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels.
Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male. Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years.
In May 2015, the Atlantic Goliath grouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time. Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara.
In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter. Besides shelter, tidal pools provide E. Tamara with plenty of prey such as lobster and porcelain crab.
The Atlantic Goliath grouper has historically been referred to as the “Jewish”. It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe.
In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive. Age, Growth, and Reproduction of Jewish Epimetheus Tamara in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.
Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epimetheus Tamara.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Mycteroperca Species: Binomial name Mycteroperca rosacea Synonyms Epimetheus rosacea Streets, 1877 Mycteroperca Paris Gilbert, 1892 Mycteroperca rosacea has a body which is elongated, robust and compressed with its depth being the no greater at the origin of the dorsal fin as it is at the origin of the anal fin, in fact it is deepest at the origin of the anal fin.
The standard length is 2.7 to 3.1 times the depth of the body. The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are notched.
The caudal fin has a straight rear margin. It usually has a body color which is greenish to grayish brown marked with small reddish brown spots, as well as irregular pale spots and lines and it has white margins on the fins.
There is also a antic color phase in which the entire body bright yellow-orange, occasionally with few scattered black spots. This species attains a total length of 86 centimeters (34 in) and a maximum published weight of 9.6 kilograms (21 lb).
Mycteroperca rosacea occurs in rocky areas in shallow water with a depth range of 1 to 100 meters (3.3 to 328.1 ft). The adults are largely piscivorous and prey on schools of the Pacific flatiron herring, (Hangul Christina), and the Pacific anchored (Cetengraulis mystics) when they are in season.
They mostly feed at dawn and dusk, peaking in activity around 20 minutes after sunset. The juveniles are more diurnal, feeding on a diverse range of benthic fishes and crustaceans.
It is thought to be a protogynous hermaphrodite with sexually mature females changing sex to become males later in life. The larvae settle among beds of Sargasso in rocky areas and when El Niño increases the water temperature this reduces the amount of Sargasso cover and reduces this species recruitment.
By contrast La Niña decreases the water temperature and recruitment of leopard groupers peaks. Mycteroperca rosacea is considered to be an excellent food fish and is an important target species, among other grouper species, for large and small scale fisheries in the northern Gulf of California.
Poachers fish illegally for Leopard groupers using spears, hookah breathing apparatus, taking a significant number of fish. They can also be fished for in the surf in the early hours of the morning.
Shore fishes of the Eastern Pacific online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).