The dorsal profile of the head and the intraorbital area are convex, The properly has a rounded corner and a finely serrated margin. The gill cover has a convex upper margin.
The adults are greyish-brown in color overlain with a mottled pattern and with darker fins. The giant grouper can grow to huge size with the maximum recorded standard length being 270 centimeters (110 in), although they are more common around 180 centimeters (71 in).
And a maximum published weight of 400 kilograms (880 lb). The giant grouper is a species of shallow water and can be found at depths of 1 to 100 meters (3.3 to 328.1 ft).
Large specimens have been caught from shore and in harbors. They are found in caves and in wrecks while the secretive juveniles occur in reefs and are infrequently observed.
The adults are mainly solitary and hold territories on the outer reef and in lagoons. They have also been caught in turbid water over silt or mud sea beds by prawn fishermen.
The giant grouper is an opportunistic ambush predator which feeds on a variety of fishes, as well as small sharks, juvenile sea turtles, crustaceans and mollusks which are all swallowed whole. Fish which inhabit coral reefs and rocky areas favor spiny lobsters as prey and 177 centimeters (70 in) specimen taken of Maui in Hawaii had a stomach contents of two spiny lobsters and a number of crabs.
Fish living in estuaries environments in South Africa were found to be feeding almost exclusively on the crab Scylla errata. They are, however, curious and frequently approach divers closely.
They are not generally considered dangerous to humans but divers are advised to treat large specimens with caution and not to hand feed them. They are aggregate broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male.
Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring. Giant groupers are diabetic protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that although some males develop from reproductively functional females other males start to produce sperm without ever having gone through a phase as a reproductive female.
The giant grouper is a highly valued food fish and is taken by both commercial and recreational fisheries. As well as the consumption of its flesh its skin, gall bladder and stomach are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
It is valued in Hong Kong as a live fish for the live reef food fish trade, especially smaller specimens. This species is cultured in agriculture and this practice is widespread but there is a restricted supply of juveniles, although hatcheries in Taiwan have produced captive bred juveniles, exporting some for to be grown on in other parts of South-East Asia.
Many of the fish produced in aquaculture are hybrids between this species and E. fuscoguttatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
“A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus)”. ^ Peter Palma; Akihito Nakamura; Garden XYZ Libunaoa; et al. (2019).
Adults have mottled brown to dark gray stocky bodies. They are often found either hovering in mid water or resting motionless on the substrate.
This specie sound in the Indo-Pacific and is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Queensland's groupers live in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan, west to the Red Sea, and south to Alga Bay, South Africa.
This large fish is commonly found in shallow waters in or around coral reefs. This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips.
Dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size front to back. Queensland's groupers feed on fishes, including avoids and small sharks, spiny lobsters, crustaceans and juvenile sea turtles.
The Queensland grouper is a solitary, slow-moving fish usually found resting motionless on the substrate or hovering mid water. This species is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN due to overfishing.
Queensland's groupers live in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan, west to the Red Sea, and south to Alga Bay, South Africa. This large fish is commonly found in shallow waters in or around coral reefs.
This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips. Dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size front to back.
Queensland's groupers feed on fishes, including avoids and small sharks, spiny lobsters, crustaceans and juvenile sea turtles. The Queensland grouper is a solitary, slow-moving fish usually found resting motionless on the substrate or hovering mid water.
This species is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN due to overfishing. A Queensland Groper, Epimetheus lanceolatus, at Main Beach South Stradbroke Island, Queensland, August 2017.
Summary:Adults are a mottled greyish-brown with yellowish or darker fins. Small juveniles are yellow with irregular broad dark bars on the body, and irregular dark spots on the fins.
This huge robust grouper is the largest bony reef-dwelling fish in the world. Prior to its listing as a protected species in the early 1980s, the Queensland Groper was much sought after by line and spearfishes in New South Wales.
2020, Epimetheus lanceolatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 02 Jan 2021, http://188.8.131.52/home/species/4672 Rottenest Island through north-western Australia, including Rowley Shoals and Scott Reef, to Sydney, New South Wales including reefs in the Coral Sea; also Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean, and the Lord Howe Island Province in the Tasman Sea.
The species has also been reported from Young husband Peninsula, South Australia. This solitary species inhabits shallow inshore waters, including rocky areas, caves and wrecks, harbors, estuaries, lagoons and seaward reefs.
Large individuals often hover in mid-water, or lie motionless on the bottom. Dorsal fin XI,14-16; Anal fin III, 8; Gill makers (first arch) 8-10 + 14-17; Lateral-line scales 54-62, anterior scales with branched tubules (except small juveniles).
Body robust, body depth 2.3-3.4 in SL (specimens 12-179 cm SL); body width 1.5-1.75 in body depth; head length 2.2-2.7 in SL; eye diameter 5.8-14 in HL; interorbital width 3.3 (at 177 cm SL) to 6.2 (at 12 cm SL) in HL; properly finely serrate, the corner rounded; upper edge of pendulum convex. Mid lateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of teeth (at 20-25 cm SL) increasing to 15-16 rows in specimen of 177 cm SL; canine teeth at front of jaws small or absent.
Dorsal fin third to eleventh spines subequal, shorter than the longest soft rays; short pelvic fins, 23.0-2.7 in head length; caudal fin rounded. Small juveniles (less than 15 cm SL) are yellow, with 3 irregular black areas, the first from the spinors dorsal fin to the belly and chest, and extending onto the head; the second from the soft dorsal-fin base to the anal fin; the third at the caudal-fin base. Subadults (25-60 cm SL) with irregular white or yellow spots on the black areas, and black spots on the fins. Adults (90-165 cm SL) dark brown with faint mottling, and numerous small black spots on the fins. Large adults 180-250 cm SL) are greyish-brown to dark brown with darker fins.
Feeds on lobsters, crabs, fishes including small sharks and rays, and juvenile sea turtles. Although common in the live fish trade in Asia, the species is considered to be under threat from fishing pressure in most parts of its range.
Fortunately, fish reared in aquaculture operations are increasingly being sold in the live fish trade. Listed as a Protected Species under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 in New South Wales, where it is at the southern limit of its distribution in Australia.
The species is also partly or fully protected in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland. It was listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN in 2018.
There have been unconfirmed reports of fatal attacks on humans, and the flesh of large individuals may contain ciguatera. Type locality: Stingier Alma 2010.
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