In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 Groupers are mostly monastic protogynous hermaphrodites, i.e. they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity.
The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, William N. ; Cricket, Ron & van der Loan, Richard (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “. Groupers belong to one of the largest and most widely distributed families of fish, the sea basses.
French Name:German Name:Spanish Name:Introduction:Groupers belong to one of the largest and most widely distributed families of fish, the sea basses. Some processors call gag “the grouper of choice,” since it offers better yield and firmer meat.
Product Profile:Groupers have a mild but distinct flavor, somewhere between bass and halibut. The taste of most groupers is similar, with slight differences in flavor and texture, depending on size, species and location of harvest.
Cooked, the white meat has a very firm texture and heavy flake and remains moist. Cooking Tips:In the South, blackened grouper is a favorite preparation, but this versatile fish can be fried, grilled, skewered or used in chowders and soups.
Things crawling among the filth of the lake or ocean floor, soaking up the collective waste of the water bodies they eek their pitiful existence in. It stands to reason that such animals would be happier and healthier in the cleaner, clearer parts of the lake, river or ocean.
Plus, let’s face it, that subconscious aversion to things which we perceive as dirty is very much at play. The way you see it, an animal which spends its life on the lake floor or seafloor must be dirtier than the clean, crisp salmon cruising above.
But as with many misconceptions instilled into us by modern society, those poor bottom-feeders might deserve far more credit than you give them. Animals like sardines, anchovies, mackerel, squid, octopus, shrimp and shellfish are all classified as bottom-feeders.
Let’s get to the bottom of things (surprisingly, pun unintended) and sort out fact from fiction. A bottom-feeder is any aquatic animal which spends some or all of its life feeding on or near the bottom of a water body.
Halibut Flounder Plaice Sole Eel Cod Haddock Bass Grouper Carp Snapper Sardines Catfish Shark As a general rule of thumb, shellfish are amazingly good for your health.
The fact that they spend their lives immersed in mineral-rich waters means they’re fantastically nutrient dense. In many cases, shellfish provide vitamins and minerals which you’d be hard-pressed to find in any land-based animal or plant.
And because you generally eat the whole animal (not a particular section like with beef or chicken), you’re getting the full spectrum of nutritional goodness from your mussel or oyster. Unlike many other overpriced “delicacy” foods, oysters are well worth the extra bucks you fork out at the restaurant.
As if that wasn’t enough, oysters provide an almost unparalleled concentration of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids. Not only are they amazingly rich and delicious in a nice white wine or garlic sauce, they also have plenty of nutrients and antioxidants.
These include folate, thiamine, riboflavin, magnesium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc. Many of these are really difficult to obtain from other food sources, making them an important go-to within your weekly diet.
With something that tastes so good, you’ll be pleased to hear that scallops are an excellent nutritional choice. With pigs, if they’re allowed to roam and forage for the foods they want, their meat is amazingly nutritious.
So too with these members of the phylum Arthropods, which are always wild caught (aside from some crayfish, but these farmed varieties are generally okay to eat as well). While shrimp doesn’t really compare to other shellfish in terms of its nutritional properties, it’s still a good source of protein.
It also has decent levels of selenium and calcium, and is a good source of iodine and B vitamins. Certainly, you could do worse than to eat shrimp, but you need to make sure you source good quality varieties.
That’s because their small size means they’re less capable of bio accumulating heavy metals like mercury. You’re much more likely to get heavy metal poisoning from large predatory fish like tuna or salmon than these little critters.
They are, however, a good clean source of protein, and they do have reasonable levels of selenium and B-vitamins. Due to their highly unsustainable fishing track record and the fact that the common Atlantic varieties tend to be contaminated with heavy metals, they should be avoided if possible.
American eel is often found in sushi in the U.S. and is generally very high in PCs and mercury. Add to that the fact that American eel fisheries are poorly managed, and you’ve got a good reason to avoid these slippery characters.