The properly is angular and has with 3 to 6 large spines at its angle, the lowest being directed downwards. The caudal fin is rounded and the body is covered in small scales which are set within thick skin.
The overall color is greenish bronze with darker fins which are brownish purple and have white or pale margins. There are 3 or 4 pale blue or white lines across the gill cover, these can be quite faint in larger adults.
The maximum total length this species has been recorded at is 120 centimeters (47 in), although they are more common at around 60 centimeters (24 in), and the maximum published weight is 25 kilograms (55 lb)> The white grouper is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from southern Portugal and southern Spain south along the western coast of Africa as far south as Angola, including the islands in the Gulf of Guinea.
Its occurrence in the Canary Islands and Madeira needs to be verified. It is found in the southern and eastern Mediterranean but appears to be expanding its range northwards being formerly absent north of 44°N in the Adriatic Sea and to be absent from the central Mediterranean but there have been records from Corsica and Monaco, among other recent northerly Mediterranean Sea records.
There is a history of vagrancy in this species and the synonym Percy robust was based on a specimen taken in Cornwall in southwestern England. The white grouper occurs on substrates of rock or mud and sand while the juveniles are found in coastal lagoons and estuaries, and adults are found at depths between 20 and 200 meters (66 and 656 ft).
This is a carnivorous species and off West Africa it was found that 58% of their diet is made up of fishes, 21% of stomatopods, 10% of crabs and 10% of cephalopods. There is a seasonal migration of this species off the coats of Senegal and Mauritania which is linked to an upwelling off the coasts of those nations.
They are protogynous hermaphrodites with the females reaching sexual maturity on attainment of a total length of 50 to 60 centimeters (20 to 24 in) and at an age of 5–7 years and the sex change to males occurs when they are 10 to 13 years old. Off Tunisia this species spawns during June and July while in Iskenderun Bay in Turkey, spawning starts in early June and continues up to late August. The white grouper is a very important quarry species for fisheries throughout its range, fishermen use hook-and-line and trawls to catch it.
In Senegalese waters, artisanal fishers are the main Flanders of this species, however, there is a local commercial fishery which is set up for the export market, mainly to Europe. Even where protected it has been targeted by poachers using spear guns and lights at night.
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In addition to being super versatile and easy to prepare, these types of fish are also brimming with nutrients like protein, vitamin B12 and selenium. Although these are two of the most familiar whitefish names, there are tons of other different types available, including cod, halibut, haddock and flounder.
Each type brings a unique set of nutrients to the table and has minute variations in taste and texture. However, most types of whitefish are relatively low in fat yet high in protein and micronutrients like selenium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium.
Unlike whitefish, these fish are higher in calories but also pack a hearty chunk of omega-3 fatty acids into each serving as well. In addition to being relatively low in calories, cod is an excellent source of protein, selenium and vitamin B12.
Red snapper is one of the most popular varieties, which is known for its slightly sweet yet nutty flavor and impressive nutrient profile. Check out this Savory Baked Whitefish recipe for a healthy dinner idea that you can whip up in a pinch.
Groupers have a firm, flaky and moist texture that works well grilled, smoked, roasted or baked. This type of brownish black and whitefish is highly nutritious and jam-packed with protein, niacin, magnesium and phosphorus, along with an array of many other important micronutrients.
Besides being low in fat and calories, each serving of haddock is also brimming with protein, selenium, niacin, vitamin B12 and phosphorus. Like other fish, flounder is highly nutritious; in fact, each serving provides a good chunk of the selenium, phosphorus and vitamin B12 that you need for the entire day.
Whitefish is low in calories but loaded with protein, which makes it a great addition to a well-rounded weight loss diet. Protein can help curb cravings and boost weight loss by decreasing levels of ghrelin, which is the hormone that stimulates feelings of hunger.
In fact, a deficiency in this key nutrient can lead to stunted growth, anemia, vascular dysfunction and water retention, along with a laundry list of other symptoms. Most types of whitefish are also high in selenium, which is a compound that acts as an antioxidant to fight the formation of harmful free radicals and protect against chronic disease.
Although the exact nutrient profiles can vary a bit between different types of fish, most varieties are also rich in vitamin B12, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Some studies have also found that farmed fish contains higher levels of toxins and contaminants, which may be associated with long-term health problems.
Keep in mind that some types of fish may also be high in mercury or other contaminants, which can start to slowly build up in the body over time. However, children and pregnant women should stick to fish that is low in mercury and moderate their intake to avoid adverse effects on health.
Some of the best examples of white fish include cod, snapper, flounder, haddock, halibut and grouper. These types of fish are rich in protein as well as important micronutrients like selenium, vitamin B12, phosphorus and magnesium.
In addition to supporting weight loss, adding these healthy fish to your diet can also supply a hearty dose of antioxidants, which can help reduce inflammation and protect against chronic disease. Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses.
The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca. In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'.
However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “. Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine.
Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth. They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably.
They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx. They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans.
Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed. They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills.
The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language. In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku.
In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region. The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes.
The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing.
As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease. If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so.
Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times. The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover.
Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males. Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size.
Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing. Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed.
Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets. Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning.
DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools. In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón.
The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait. In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China.
^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014). ^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006).
^ John E. Randall; Kashmir Aida; Takashi Libya; Nobuhiro Missouri; His Kamila & Yorkshire Hashimoto (1971). “Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF).
Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory. ^ Scholar, William N. ; Cricket, Ron & van der Loan, Richard (eds.).
A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage. Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae).
Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish. A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew.
Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism. Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico.
^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage. Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes.
^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution. ^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.
Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”. ^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.
^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”. ^ Heather Alexander, Houston Chronicle (21 August 2014).
“Gulf grouper swallows 4 foot shark in a single bite”. Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “.