In fresh, you can only find them in a few lakes none of witch in United States If you are referring to the fish known as grouper, a true vegetarian would say “No” and would not eat it.
It can range from a greenish olive or bright red with longitudinal rows of darker black blotches over the entire fish. The yellow fin grouper is a solitary carnivore that lurks in wrecks, reef shadows, or ledges; and draws prey into its gullet by powerful suction from opening large mouth; swallows prey whole after holding it in small rasp like teeth that cover the jaws, tongue and palate.
The yellow fin grouper is a coral reef fish native to the western Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. It is generally a denizen of the deeper reef areas but it may venture into shallower waters, especially during the cooler seasons.
Recommended Preparation: Grouper meat cooks up very firm, with big flakes and holds its moisture better than many other fish. Can be grilled, fried, sautéed, broiled, steamed, baked, also excellent for soups and chowders.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus tubular Potato grouper range (green) The potato grouper has a standard length which is 2.9 to 3.5 times its depth. It has a slightly convex region between the eyes and the dorsal profile of the head is straight.
The properly is rounded or subangular and it has slightly enlarged serrations at its corner while the gill cover has a straight upper margin. There are 11 spines and 14-15 soft rays in the dorsal fin and three spines and eight rays in the anal fin.
The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are notched. This species is pale brownish-grey in overall color and it is covered in large dark widely separated blotches.
This is a large and robust species of grouper which attains a maximum published length of 200 centimeters (79 in) and a weight of 110 kilograms (240 lb). The dark blotches on the body are thought to resemble potatoes in shape and thus give rise to the common name.
The potato grouper has a wide distribution in the Indian and Pacific Oceans but is uncommon to rare in most areas. It is the commonest along the coast of eastern Arica from the Red Sea to KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa and around the Indian Ocean islands of Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius and Réunion.
It further occurs off western India and Sri Lanka east into the Pacific where it reaches as far east as the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan and south to Australia. In Australia it is distributed from Shark Bay in Western Australia along the northern coasts to Morton Bay in Queensland.
The potato grouper are found in coral reefs in the channels in the reefs and around sea mounts in areas where there is a strong current. The juveniles prefer the shallow water and are often found in tidal pools on the reef, while the adults are found at depths between 10 and 150 meters (33 to 492 ft).
They are ambush predators which prey on small rays, crabs, fish, squid, octopuses and spiny lobsters. They are aggressive and defend their territory, but they have a relatively small home range.
They reach sexual maturity at 90 to 99 centimeters (35 to 39 in) and a weight of 16 to 18 kilograms (35 to 40 lb), at approximately 12 years of age. Captive specimens have been induced to change sex from female to male so the potato grouper may, like other groupers, be a protogynous hermaphrodite.
The potato grouper is exploited by local and artisanal fisheries throughout its range and although it appears in the live food fish trade in Hong Kong and China it is not popular there. It is thought to be vulnerable to overfishing but this does not appear to be a current threat to it and the IUCN have classified its conservation status as Least Concern.
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). ^ a b c Free, Trainer and Paul, Daniel, eds.
^ “Potato Rock cod, Epimetheus tubular (Morgans, 1959)”. “Three confusing species of serrated fish, one described as new, from East Africa”.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). “ Carnivores are important in the ecosystem as they regulate the population of other species by preventing them from being overpopulated.
Facultative carnivores feed mostly on animal flesh but also require nutrients from non-animal foods and have the physiological ability to digest them. Carnivores are generally strong and fast enough to catch their prey.
They have a keen sense of hunting and their claws and teeth are modified for capturing and tearing prey. However, carnivores that lack physical characteristics and cannot bring down prey often scavenge on dead animals.
Examples of such animals include crocodiles, vultures, eagles, shrikes, owls, snakes, dolphins, spiders, groupers, wild can ids (such as wolves, jackals, and dingoes), and fields (such as lion, tiger, cougar, and leopard). The diet of a mesocarnivore comprises 30-70% meat with the balance being non-animal foods such as plant material, fruits, and fungi.
Examples of carnivores in this category are the red fox, Mayra, martens, raccoon, civets, skunks, and some mongoose. Hypo carnivores are animals whose diets comprise less than 30% of meat with the majority consisting of non-animal foods such as fruits, fungi, and other plant material.
The evolution of carnivores into the three groups including mesocarnivore and hyper carnivore may have occurred about 40 million years ago. Throughout most of the year, low numbers of the Atlantic Goliath groupers are observed in any one place.
However, during reproduction (immediately after the full moons between June and December), they come together in groups of at least 100 individuals. These groups are known as spawning aggregations, and they form at relatively few places throughout the species’ range.
Though they were likely naturally rare, scientists believe that destructive fishing practices have reduced the numbers of the Atlantic Goliath groupers by at least 80% and that the species is now critically endangered. Furthermore, a total lack of fear of people makes them an easy target for spear fishers.
Finally, the Atlantic Goliath grouper ’s large size, slow growth, and ease of capture all contribute to slow its recovery, even where laws have been put in place to give it some or complete legal protection from fishing (e.g., in the USA and Brazil). It is important to continue to monitor Atlantic Goliath grouper population trends in order to determine whether the species is recovering or if stronger legal protection may be required.
Scientists only recently divided the species into two, based on their slightly different genetic makeup. The two species are similar in both appearance and behavior, but little is known about the population trends or conservation status of the Pacific Goliath grouper.
Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.
In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 Groupers are mostly monastic protogynous hermaphrodites, i.e. they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity.
The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, William N. ; Cricket, Ron & van der Loan, Richard (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.