It is native to the western Atlantic Ocean where it ranges from the eastern United States to Brazil It is the most common species of Epimetheus in the Caribbean. The red hind has a robust, compressed body which is deepest at the origin of the dorsal fin, the standard length being 2.7 to 3.1 times the depth.
The properly has a finely serrated margin and protrudes slightly near its lower edge. There are five indistinct oblique bars made up of darker spots on the flanks.
This species attains a maximum total length of 76 centimeters (30 in), although they are more commonly around 40 centimeters (16 in) in length, and the maximum published weight is 22 kilograms (49 lb). Its range extends from Bermuda and North Carolina and along the eastern coast of the United States into the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Red hinds inhabit coral reefs and rocky bottoms, the females remain close to the bottom, while the males patrol and defend an area from other males overlapping the home ranges of one to five female. Mantis shrimps make up over 15 percent of their diet.
Crabs are the most common item on their diet, and fishes like Blue head Wrasse, Thalassemia bifasciatum ; Boga, Inertia vitiate ; goat fishes and small morays are included. Behind are protogynous hermaphrodites, changing from females to males during a stage in their life cycle.
In Puerto Rico, the fish gather in or near familiar spawning grounds along sections of the insular shelf during a one to two-week period in association with the lunar cycles of January and February. In 1992, a tagged Behind traveled more than ten miles, crossing over water 600 feet deep, bypassing other aggregations, to spawn at a particular site.
Though, on rare occasions, one to two inch juveniles are sighted sneaking about near cover on patch reefs in moderate depths. Most adults live for ten to eleven years.
The red hind is one of the most valuable commercial species in the Caribbean in terms of the numbers and total weight of landings. It is an esteemed food fish and, among other grouper species, it is exported from Mexico to the United States.
Shore fishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).
The red grouper has a body with a standard length which is 2.6 to 3 times as long as it is deep. The properly is subangular with the serrations at its angle being slightly enlarged and the upper edge of the gill cover is straight.
The They are dark reddish brown on the upper part of the head and body, shading to paler pink on the underparts, they are marked with lighter spots and blotches across their body and there are darker margins to the fins. This species has a maximum published total length of 125 centimeters (49 in), although they a more commonly found at lengths around 50 centimeters (20 in), and a maximum published weight of 23 kilograms (51 lb).
The redgrouper's typical range is coastal areas in the western Atlantic, stretching from southern Brazil to North Carolina in the US and including the Gulf of Mexico and Bermuda. The red grouper is a reversal, largely sedentary species which has an extended (~40 day) pelagic larval stage before it settles in shallow coastal hard bottom habitat as juveniles.
While primarily eating benthic invertebrates, the red grouper is an opportunistic feeder in the reef community. The diet commonly includes mantid and portend crabs, juvenile spiny lobster, and snapping shrimp, with the occasional fish.
The red grouper is of moderate size, about 125 cm and weighs 23 kg or more. When aggravated (they are highly territorial) or involved in spawning activities, these fish can very rapidly change coloration patterns, with the head or other parts of the body turning completely white, and the white spots appearing more intense.
Red grouper (Epimetheus Mario) on an excavated site on Pulley Ridges on the West Florida Shelf Red grouper actively excavate pits in the seafloor. They start digging in the sediment from the time they settle out of the plankton and continue throughout their lifetime.
They use their caudal fin and their mouths to remove debris and sediment from rocks, creating exposed surfaces on which sessile organisms actively settle (e.g., sponges, soft corals, algae). The exposure of structure also attracts a myriad of other species, including mobile invertebrates and a remarkable diversity of other fishes, from bodies and butterfly fish to grunts and snapper.
The lionfish Steroid Holsteins started invading red grouper habitat by 2008, from Florida Bay to the Florida Keys and offshore to Pulley Ridge, a despotic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf west of the Dry Tortugas. Known for being extremely capable predators on small reef fish, scientists are very interested in determining the extent to which their invasion changes the functional dynamics of associated communities.
“Helming parasites of Epimetheus Mario (Pisces: Serranidae) of the Yucatán Peninsula, southeastern Mexico” (PDF). ^ Scholar, W. N.; Cricket, R. & van der Loan, R.
The Behind (Epimetheus Gustavus) is a common grouper in the reefs of all six Dutch Caribbean islands. While it can be found all the way down to 50 meters, it tends to prefer shallow parts of the reef and rocky areas.
There, it spends all day resting or swimming slowly, only to become active at dusk and dawn to look for food, mostly fish, squid, crabs and shrimp. It hides in holes and ambushes its prey, lunging at it, then seizes it with its sharp teeth.
A fascinating fact about the Behind is that, like other members of its family, it can change its sex (the correct term for this is protogynous hermaphrodite). They reach sexual maturity at 3 years old, after which these usually solitary groupers gather in large spawning aggregations to breed.
Once fertilized, the eggs drift in the sea and hatch after 27 days, eventually settling onto the ocean floor into “nurseries”. Once fishermen figure out the timing and location of these aggregations, they can easily go to the area and catch a large amount of fish, causing much damage to the population.
Spawning aggregations are protected in certain areas, either seasonally or year-round, to ensure that fishermen cannot exploit these groupers at a crucial time for their reproduction. Saga recently adopted such a conservation strategy to protect its population of Behind.
There is less information available about this species compared with other groupers, but sources seem agreed that it is (a) abundant and (b) IUCN listed ‘least concern’ but (c) heavily fished and (d) delicious. One problem arises from the fact that Red Hinds form spawning aggregations in particular areas, making them vulnerable to fishing exploitation in those locations, and consequent population decline.
Distribution: Caribbean, Bahamas, Florida, Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico Scientific Livestock Status RecreationalCommercialSeasonClosed February 1 through March 31 beyond 20 fathoms (120 ft or 36.6 m), Open in January and April 1 through December 31. Season Red grouper is managed under an individual fishing quota (If) program.
Anyone commercially fishes for red grouper must possess allocation and follow established protocols. Additionally, an eastern Gulf reef fish bottom longline endorsement required to use bottom longline for Gulf reef fish in the federal waters east of 85°30 longitude.
The recreational sector for SG, in or from the Gulf EEA, is closed each year from February 1 through March 31, in the portion of the Gulf EEA seaward of thumb lines connecting, in order, the points in the following table. During the closure, the bag and possession limit for SG in or from the Gulf EEA seaward of the following thumb lines is zero.
Red grouper is present in the Western Atlantic from the Carolina's south to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and Bermuda; however, it is most abundant in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In general, red grouper is a dark brown color with a reddish hue on its back and sides, fading to a pale pink underneath.
The anal, dorsal and tail fins have dark margins. The spawning season occurs anywhere from January to early June depending on the area.
Obama, S., B. Eris man, W. Haman, C. Biggs, N. Farmer, S. Lowerre-Barbieri, M. Karnataka, and J. Brenner. Cooperative monitoring program for spawning aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico: data portal.
Sedan 61 Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper Final Stock Assessment Report, 2019 Farmer, N.A., Malinowski, R.P., McGovern, M.F. (2016), Stock Complexes for Fisheries Management in the Gulf of Mexico.
Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 8: 177-201. Doi: 10.1080/19425120.2015.1024359 Like, E. and R. Myers, 1994. Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
Red grouper is available year-round with peak catches in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico occurring during the summer and fall. Red grouper flesh is white and lean with a notable lack of bones, and is very forgiving when cooked as it remains moist, firm, and has large flakes.
Red grouper is considered the best tasting grouper with a distinct shellfish finish due to its diet. Red grouper are protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning they all begin life as a female and eventually some may transform into males.
Red grouper have large mouths with a slight under-bite, which allows them to eat their prey whole by dilating their gill covers and rapidly inhaling. Species Habitat Red grouper are found in the western Atlantic Ocean with ranges extending from Massachusetts through the Gulf of Mexico and south to Brazil.
Red grouper act as “marine engineers” in their ecosystem by hollowing out flat-bottomed areas to create their home and attract mates. This process provides habitat to other species such as spiny lobster, black grouper, red porgy, and vermilion snapper.
Allocates an annual catch limit between commercial (76 percent) and recreational (24 percent) fishers Restricts certain gear types to reduce by catch Sets minimum size restrictions to protect immature red grouper Establishes year round and seasonal area closures for both commercial and recreational fishers to protect spawning stock and essential fish habitat The If program allocates shares of the total commercial catch limit amongst individual fishers.
Under the program, each fisher owns a share of the quota and can choose to fish it at anytime during the open season. Strict commercial reporting requirements prevent fishers from harvesting more than their individual allocation.
The Reef Fish FMP has been a success in allowing red grouper populations to bounce back from overfishing that had occurred on and off in the Gulf since the 1970s. They are fairly long-lived and come together to spawn in large numbers, characteristics that make them vulnerable to fishing pressure.
The Gulf of Mexico population in the was declared overfished in 2000 and then was rebuilt to target levels in 2007, according to the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. The South Atlantic stock is no longer overfished, but a 2010 assessment showed it hasn’t been fully rebuilt.
Grouper fisheries have high impacts on nontarget species, the Monterey Bay Aquarium reported. Venting tools are also employed to make it easier for reef fish to survive when released.
In the United States, red grouper management measures include permits, annual catch limits, fishing quotas, marine protected areas that are closed to fishing, seasonal closures, gear restrictions, minimum size limits, and data reporting requirements.