On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts. In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal.
Young Atlantic goliathgroupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers. They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb).
The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961. Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic Goliath grouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen.
It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature. They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations.
Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline. The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico.
The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.
Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. In May 2015, the Atlantic Goliath grouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time.
Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara. In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter.
It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe. In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive.
^ Lovato, Cleo nice Maria Cardozo; Soars, Bruno Clears; Begot, Tiago Octavio Buffalo; Montage, Luciano Coach de Assis (January 2016). “Tidal pools as habitat for juveniles of the Goliath grouper Epimetheus Tamara (Lichtenstein 1822) in the Amazonian coastal zone, Brazil”.
Risky, Delaney C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H. (2015). “ Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epimetheus Tamara. Historically, the Goliath grouper was relatively common and highly conspicuous in portions of its range.
In the western Atlantic Ocean Goliath grouper are found from Florida to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. In the Eastern Atlantic they occurred from Senegal south to the Congo; however, this population is believed to have been eliminated because no individuals have been observed there for many years.
Due to significant declines in abundance through the 1960s-80s, harvest of Goliath grouper was prohibited in U.S. waters in 1990. The species has since been protected in Brazil (2002), Puerto Rico (2004) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (2004), but fishing continues in other parts of its range.
Following the granting of protected species status, abundance in Florida has appeared to increase over the past two decades, but the extent of the recovery is not clearly understood. Likewise, information on the perceived increase in abundance is limited, and it is difficult for fisheries managers to truly understand the extent to which the species has recovered throughout its geographic range.
This perception is reinforced by the fact that Goliath grouper will opportunistically prey upon hooked or speared fish. Many anglers report that aggressive Goliath grouper can make it almost impossible to land a fish.
Recreational divers have expressed concern about human safety as Goliath grouper repeatedly exposed to wounded or dead fish can become aggressive, and in extreme cases may harass divers with speared fish. Many anglers and divers are now concerned that the Goliath grouper’s protected status has resulted in abundance levels that do not represent a natural ecosystem balance.
When hooking a small Goliath grouper, work quickly and use proper fish handling techniques. Adult goliathgroupers are generally sedentary and have small home ranges, making them more vulnerable to spearfishing.
The fact that they form predictable spawning aggregations further increases susceptibility to fishing pressure. Goliath grouper are dispersal spawners, meaning eggs and sperm are released and mixed in the water column during spawning.
Juveniles settle in shallow estuaries habitats, where they reside for several years before moving offshore. Juveniles remain in mangrove habitat for the first five to six years of life, and then move offshore when they reach about 3 feet.
Abundant food and shelter result in high survival and fairly rapid growth of 4.5-6 inches per year during the juvenile phase. Juveniles moving out of mangrove habitat may disperse far and wide until they establish a more permanent home range.
One juvenile tagged in the Ten A Thousand Islands was recaptured on the central east coast in the Indian River area. To date, Goliath grouper stomach content analysis has documented that about 85% of their diet consists of crustaceans, mostly crabs.
This measures the relative concentration of certain molecules like oxygen and carbon in body tissue to help scientists understand links in the marine food web. Results show that goliathgroupers occupy a relatively low position on the food chain, about on the same level as the tiny pinkish, a common bait fish.
Consequently, the number of Goliath grouper observed concentrated over structure during the day may not represent all that are actually present. Since protective measures were implemented in 1990, anecdotal accounts and directed research efforts indicate increasing abundance of Goliath grouper throughout Florida.
The most recent stock assessment (2004) indicated that Goliath grouper in Florida waters were recovering, but that the population may not experience full recovery until 2020 or later. Because the harvest of Goliath grouper is prohibited, the conclusions of the stock assessment were made in the absence of certain types of biological information (e.g., age structure, sex ratio) that are typically available for other species through the examination of harvested individuals.
Citizen volunteers have played an important role in assessing Goliath grouper abundance and locating spawning aggregations. Everglades National Park Angler Surveys: Detailed catch and effort data collected during volunteer dockside interviews of recreational anglers from within Everglades National Park show a substantial decline in abundance during the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Since the moratorium in 1990, the abundance of juveniles within ENP, which includes critical nursery habitat for this species, has increased considerably. Anglers and divers can provide valuable assistance by reporting observations of tagged Goliath grouper (see information below).
Citizen volunteers have played an important role in helping scientists evaluate the recovery of Goliath grouper and also in identifying spawning aggregations. You can play a role in the Goliath grouper’s recovery and assist scientists in data collection.
However, during reproduction (immediately after the full moons between June and December), they come together in groups of at least 100 individuals. These groups are known as spawning aggregations, and they form at relatively few places throughout the species’ range.
Though they were likely naturally rare, scientists believe that destructive fishing practices have reduced the numbers of the Atlantic goliathgroupers by at least 80% and that the species is now critically endangered. These fish utilize the same, few locations and same, few days for spawning every year, so their presence is quite predictable.
Furthermore, a total lack of fear of people makes them an easy target for spear fishers. Finally, the Atlantic Goliath grouper’s large size, slow growth, and ease of capture all contribute to slow its recovery, even where laws have been put in place to give it some or complete legal protection from fishing (e.g., in the USA and Brazil).
Scientists only recently divided the species into two, based on their slightly different genetic makeup. The two species are similar in both appearance and behavior, but little is known about the population trends or conservation status of the Pacific Goliath grouper.