This particular specimen was black with small white spots and had a bluish tinted belly. The Hawaiian grouper has a body which has a standard length that is 2.3 to 2.7 times its depth.
It has an angular properly which has 3-4 enlarged serrations at its angle, with the lowest pointing downwards. The upper margin of the gill cover is convex.
The dorsal fin contains 11 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 9 soft rays. The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are deeply notched.
The adults are dark brown in overall color and are marked with 8 vertical series of faint white spots which are obscured by many extra pale spots and blotches which vary in size. The fins of adults are largely plain and have a similar color to the body apart from a few pale spots along the base part of the dorsal fin.
The Hawaiian grouper is a reversal species which is found on coral and rocky reefs at depths between 20 and 380 meters (66 and 1,247 ft). The spawning season runs from February to June, peaking in March.
The Hawaiian grouper is valued for having clear white flesh which has a delicate flavor. It is regarded as a member of the “Deep 7” group of fish species which live in deep water, near the bottom, and are a valuable resource for fisheries in Hawaii, these species accounting for 50% of the total commercial catch in the State.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF).
This fish is an attack predator with a number of hunting techniques: lying to wait in coral, swimming in mid water, following other predators like eels and octopus and catching their prey if originally missed, and hiding within schools of fish and darting out at unsuspecting prey. Habitat: C. Argus can be found on shallow exposed reefs in warm tropical waters.
It is a protogynous hermaphrodite, meaning it begins life as a female and changes to a male as it matures. It is treatable in humans, but the concern is that ciguatoxin can move up the food chain via bio amplification and spread to other species.
Of the complex, ‘pakapaka and Oneida are the most abundantly harvested by fishermen and highly prized by chefs for their premium texture and mild flavor. Some limited information suggests that juveniles of some of these species may be found in shallower soft sand and mud environments.
This bottom fish complex remains abundant in Hawaiian waters and can continue to be sustainably harvested, according to a 2018 stock assessment. NOAA Fisheries shares management of the Deep 7 bottom fish complex with the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources.
To provide for a sustainable harvest, the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council recommended federal regulations for Deep 7 bottom fish, including an annual catch limit and non-commercial bag limits, vessel marking requirements, a federal non-commercial bottom fish permit, and reporting requirements. The Council recommends, and NOAA Fisheries approves, an annual catch limit for the Deep 7 bottom fish each year.
Seafood dealers, markets, restaurants, and anyone else is prohibited from possessing or selling Deep 7 bottom fish during a fishery closure. Age, growth, longevity, and maturity are important biological parameters for understanding the life history of these species.
This biological information, when combined with an assessment of the fish ’s reproduction, make the life history of ‘pakapaka the most well understood of the Deep 7 bottom fish. These fish may grow similarly to ‘pakapaka, but there is evidence to support faster growth for EU, India, and Levi.
In contrast to the Deep 7 snappers, Hawaiian grouper was recently shown to have quite complex biological characteristics. This species changes sex (female to male) at bigger sizes and older ages and can live longer than 50 years.
The stock assessment process requires reliable sources of data on catch, fishing effort, biology, and abundance. These annual surveys assess the numbers and sizes of bottom fish around the main Hawaiian Islands.
We are committed to cooperative research with local fishermen to build relationships with the community and continually improve the collection of scientific information. Data collected on Fish surveys guides sustainable fisheries and resource management for the Deep 7 species in Hawaii‘i and the overall ecosystem.
Artwork: Les Data © Secretariat of the Pacific Community Scientific Name: Epimetheus Quercus Hawaiian Name: Hapuupuu Japanese Name: Mahatma Groupers are able to change skin colors to blend into their natural habitat, and the hap`UPU`u is no exception.
Most hap`UPU`u seen in the market are black, but fish captured in certain locations may be brownish or reddish. Hap`UPU`u is noted for its clear white flesh that is almost as delicate in taste as that of Hawaii’s deepwater snappers.
Texture: Delicate Flavor: Mild Suggested Preparations: Steamed, Baked, Poached, Deep-Fried, Soup Hawaii Sea Bass, also known as hapuupuu is an excellent source of healthy, extra lean protein.
Hawaii Sea Bass also provides about 250 mg of omega-3’s (DHA and EPA) per 4 ounce serving of fresh fish. Labor Day weekend is not only great for fishing, but for cooking your fresh catch as well.
After a visit to Hawaii, Chef Chris Sherrill returned with some new ideas on fixing your favorite fish with ingredients from the islands! Chef Chris Sherrill: “In case you don’t know, they love their SPAM in Hawaii, and so we are going to do a really cool potato dish with that, but what the keynote is, is this beautiful grouper, right here from the Gulf of Mexico.
We are going to crust right in some Hawaiian macadamia nuts. All we did was grind macadamia nuts with a little pinko bread crumbs.
This macadamia oil has got a high cooking temperature, and we are going to sauté this grouper right in that. So you don’t want a lot of burns on that. We only did this for about 10 to 15 seconds on each side, and we are going to finish this in the oven.
So we are going to throw this in a very hot oven and finish it out and in the meantime, we are going to finish up the rest of our other dish. This is kind of the important part.
We are going to add a little butter to this, and we are going to brown our SPAM. And over there they use a lot of Maui sweet onions, but we are going to use what we call the green onion whites here.
A large inquisitive inhabitant of reefs at scuba depths around Midway and Sure Atoll but rarely seen by divers around the other Hawaiian Islands, where it prefers cooler waters deeper than 200 feet. A long-lived, commercially important species sensitive to over-harvesting, it is a member of the Deep Seven.
Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.
In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.
Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Original combination: Serra nus actively. The genus Chromites contains only one species, the panther grouper Chromileptesaltivelis.
Molecular taxonomists have recently subsumed Chromites into Epimetheus (Ma and Craig 2018); however, this designation has not yet been widely applied. The head profile is unique amongst the groupers, as it is depressed anteriorly and elevated posteriorly, rising sharply at the nape.
Dorsal fin X (17-19), anal fin III (9-10), pectoral rays 17-18 (Heemskerk and Randall 1993; Randall et al. 1996). Similar species: Greater soap fish (Optics saponaceus) has gray to dark body color, lacks dark body spots.
Spotted soap fish (R. subifrenatus) has tan to brown body color and pale borders around dark spots. Native Range: From the Red Sea to South Africa and east to French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands group, including northern Australia, Lord Howe Island and southern Japan.
Early reports (from Valentines in 1828 and Quo & Gamma rd in 1824) listed the species from Hawaii’i; however, these reports are considered erroneous. Reports from western Indian Ocean (Heemskerk and Randall 1984, 1986) are unsubstantiated, except one from Kenya (Smith 1954) which seems valid (Heemskerk and Randall 1993).
Non indigenous Occurrences : In Florida, the species has been collected/observed in Tampa Bay (in 1984 ), off Boca Raton (pre-1995 ), in the Indian River Lagoon, near Cocoa (in 2003), off Pompano Beach (in 2005 and 2006 ) and off West Palm Beach (in 2007 and 2011). A very large specimen (68 cm TL, approximately 15 lbs) was captured off Key Largo in December 2012.
Scattered records from Hawaii are probably based on released aquarium fishes and the species was considered extirpated as of 2005 (Randall and Heemskerk 1991; Muddy 2005). States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of Huts with observations.
Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Chromites actively are found here.
The species is an important food- fish throughout the Indolent Pacific region; however, due to its carnivorous nature, it has been blamed for numerous cases of Ciguatera poisoning in both the native and introduced ranges. Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range.
The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
An inconvenient monopoly: and update on the taxonomy of the groupers (Epinephelidae). The threatened status of groupers (Epinephrine).
Micronesian reef fishes: A field guide for divers and aquariums. Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian Islands.
Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Performed: Serranidae: Epinephrine), with descriptions of five new species. Exotic species sighting program and volunteer survey project database, accessed March 10, 2008.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.
2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 1 (1-lb) piece grouper or red snapper fillet (3/4 inch thick), skinned and halved crosswise 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon black pepper 1/2 cup coarsely chopped tomato 1 small garlic clove, minced (optional) 2 tablespoons thinly sliced fresh basil Arrange fish skinned sides down and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Toss together tomato, garlic (if using), basil, remaining tablespoon oil, and salt and pepper to taste in a small bowl, then mound on top of fish. I have made it several times using red grouper that my husband caught.
I have used cherry tomatoes added Almaty olives and capers when I have had them on hand. Last night I made the recipe by baking it in the oven for 12 minutes uncovered.
This was easy to make, but the flavors are very dependent on the quality of the ingredients. I used grouper, but I think a lot of different types of firm white fish would work.
I made it with everyday tilapia and served over plenty and it was very tasty. I have a similar recipe I make that has tarragon and red onion and capers and sometimes olives, but this simple flavor was really outstanding.
I used 10 oz grape tomatoes cut in half, parsley instead of basil and added a few capers. I did dust one side of the fish with a little flour and seared it before adding the tomatoes and covering the pan.
To the fresh fanatics below: I use frozen grouper from the freezer section of my supermarket and it still turns out great. This worked great on the grill, packaging the fish & topping as prepared in a double layer of heavy-duty foil.
Good and simple, but nothing special, I mean how can you go wrong with tomato, basil and garlic. I was lucky enough to buy fresh veggies at our local Farmer's Market and it really made the flavors of this receive come out.
I followed the recipe exactly using red grouper and thought it turned out very tasty. Like some earlier I reduced pan juices with a dash of white wine and a touch of Basaltic Vinegar.
Used heirloom miniature tomatoes, served with a side of porcine peal pasta risotto and snap peas. It was a quick and easy recipe with a great flavor especially if all ingredients are fresh.
The freshness of the ingredients and its flavors come together in an excellent way; as Italian cuisine is supposed to be. I doubled the basil and the garlic and added a touch of red pepper flakes.
I hate to do dishes so, I tightly sealed it all a sheet of heavy-duty foil. Then I put it on the grill with some fresh corn on the cob and summer squash and served it with quinoa.