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Hawaiian Black Grouper

author
Carole Stephens
• Monday, 21 June, 2021
• 17 min read

Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Hyporthodus Species: Binomial name Hyporthodus Quercus Synonyms Epimetheus Quercus Scale, 1901 Anthony Ballad in Northeastern Hawaii Island on November 8, 2019.

grouper hawaiian wetpixel forums 2008 underwater
(Source: wetpixel.com)

Contents

This particular specimen was black with small white spots and had a bluish tinted belly. The Hawaiian grouper has a body which has a standard length that is 2.3 to 2.7 times its depth.

It has an angular properly which has 3-4 enlarged serrations at its angle, with the lowest pointing downwards. The upper margin of the gill cover is convex.

The dorsal fin contains 11 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 9 soft rays. The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are deeply notched.

The adults are dark brown in overall color and are marked with 8 vertical series of faint white spots which are obscured by many extra pale spots and blotches which vary in size. The fins of adults are largely plain and have a similar color to the body apart from a few pale spots along the base part of the dorsal fin.

The Hawaiian grouper is a reversal species which is found on coral and rocky reefs at depths between 20 and 380 meters (66 and 1,247 ft). The spawning season runs from February to June, peaking in March.

grouper belize location
(Source: reefguide.org)

The Hawaiian grouper is valued for having clear white flesh which has a delicate flavor. It is regarded as a member of the “Deep 7” group of fish species which live in deep water, near the bottom, and are a valuable resource for fisheries in Hawaii, these species accounting for 50% of the total commercial catch in the State.

Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF).

Groupers have large mouths, heavy bodies (they can grow to an enormous size), protruding lower jaw and are usually solitary bottom-dwellers. They are also called sea basses and can be found in shallow waters as well as depths of many hundreds of feet.

This sucks water into their mouths as well as their food, which can be anything from stingrays, lobsters, small fish and even sea turtles. The endemic HawaiianBlackGrouper is another large species that can be found in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

They also have teeth plates inside their throat that prevent prey from escaping after being swallowed. Species Habitat Black grouper are found in the western Atlantic Ocean with ranges extending from Massachusetts to Brazil.

bahamas eleuthera grouper reefs location reefguide caribbean bonaci mycteroperca groupers tropical
(Source: reefguide.org)

Occurrences of the species north of Carolina's are considered to be rare and most likely due to larval transport in the Gulf Stream rather than migration. Juveniles can occur in seagrass and oyster rubble habitat in the Carolina's, and along reefs in the Florida Keys and in Brazil.

Adults prefer rocky bottoms, drop-off walls and ledges, caves, crevices, and coral and artificial reefs. While they are relatively sedentary and can remain in one particular site for some time, black grouper move to progressively deeper waters as they age.

They used passive acoustic recorders to monitor sound production indicative of spawning habitat use by groupers at Riley’s Hump in the Tortuga's South Ecological Reserve in Florida, the first known US spawning site for black grouper. This study illustrated the importance of the Tortuga's South Ecological Reserve and called for continued research in order to understand its role in the recovery and sustainability of managed fish populations.

Because of the vulnerability to overfishing associated with large aggregations and the biodiversity therein, it is important to consider spawning locations in the establishment of marine protected areas and seasonal closures. Limiting the number of available permits (both transferable and nontransferable) available to commercial fishers; Establishing annual catch limits for both commercial and recreational fishers; Establishing overall species quotas; Commercial and recreational size limits to reduce harvest of immature grouper ; Seasonal closures to protect spawning aggregations; Gear restrictions to protect habitat and reduce by catch; and, Eight deep-water marine protected areas closed to fishing and possession of snapper and grouper.

Established in 1984, the Reef Fish FMP and its amendments were designed to end historic overfishing for shallow water groupers and to rebuild populations. Establishes and allocates annual species-specific catch limits between commercial and recreational fishers for groupers and tile fish; Sets gear restrictions; Sets minimum size restrictions to protect immature grouper ; and, Establishes year round and seasonal area closures for both commercial and recreational fishers to protect spawning stock and essential fish habitat.

grouper belize location groupers reefs tropical
(Source: reefguide.org)

The If program allocates shares of the total commercial catch limit amongst individual fishers. Under the program, each fisher owns a share of the quota and can choose to fish it at anytime during the open season.

Strict commercial reporting requirements prevent fishers from harvesting more than their individual allocation. Red and black grouper are among the most important species caught in Mexico in terms of volume and economic value.

Most grouper, particularly those caught in the Mexican industrial bottom longline fishery, is imported to the US. Numerous entities are involved to some degree with creating, implementing, and enforcing fishery management strategies in Mexico.

Under SAGA RPA, the National Aquaculture and Fishing Commission (Coalesce) is charged with developing and carrying out fisheries management regulations. Wild Black grouper are found in the Atlantic from Massachusetts to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico.

Unlike red grouper, black grouper in the United States is considered to be one stock across both the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico regions. Grouper in generally are fairly long-lived and come together to spawn in large numbers, characteristics that make them vulnerable to fishing pressure.

grouper yellowfin side belize mycteroperca bonaci location reefs tropical groupers cute reefguide
(Source: reefguide.org)

A May 2014 Seafood Watch report stated that according to the most recent stock assessment in 2010, black grouper is not considered overfished. Grouper fisheries have high impacts on nontarget species, the Monterey Bay Aquarium reported.

The black grouper fisheries use hooking devices and circle hooks to reduce by catch. Venting tools are also employed to make it easier for reef fish to survive when released.

Management measures include permits, annual catch limits, fishing quotas, marine protected areas that are closed to fishing, seasonal closures, gear restrictions, minimum size limits, and data reporting requirements. Clownfish Member 0 27 posts Gender: Female Location: Redford, Mi.

Starfish Member 0 6 posts Gender: Male Location: Kong, Hawaii Interests: Free diving, photography (probably goes without being said), film, steel tanks, music, jazz, ambient, surfing, skateboarding. Clownfish Member 0 27 posts Gender: Female Location: Redford, Mi.

Adults develop white, vertical stripes on the back half of the body. The Giant Grouper has such a large mouth and body that a human could fit into it.

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(Source: reefguide.org)

The endemic HawaiianBlackGrouper is another large species that can be found in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Usually served grilled, a yellow fin tuna can weigh up to 300 pounds.AKU.

In Hawaii, the big eye scad has to be over seven inches to be called rule. This species of deepwater bottom fish is only known to be found in the Hawaiian Islands.

Most hap‘UPU‘u (also called grouper or sea bass) seen in the market are black, but are noted for their clear, white, delicate-tasting flesh. It is large inquisitive inhabitant endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago (most common around Midway and Sure Atoll) and Johnston Island.

The Hawaiian grouper prefers deep cool waters and has been sighted at 380 ft. It is carnivorous and feeds on fishes and large invertebrates, attaining a length and weight...

Read more ›› They feed primarily upon fishes and large crustaceans. Due to the high fish diet, many reef species contain enough ciguatoxin to cause illness and caution should be exercised.

grouper hawaiian animals
(Source: diveadvisor.com)

Large groupers are poorly represented in Hawaii'i, with one deepwater endemic, one waif, and one invasive alien species. Read more ›› One thing to consider how to use a Hawaiian sling is that the fish you shoot has to be withing 6ft max from you, because it won't reach and if you let go of the Hawaiian sling spear, it won't be as powerful and you may lose the fish.

Pull this Hawaiian sling back pretty far and get as close as you can. Read more ›› Other well-known species include the golden-striped grouper (Grampuses delineates), an Indo-Pacific fish about 25 cm (10 inches) long, marked with rows of dashes when young but black or brown with lengthwise yellow stripes as an adult; the Nassau grouper, an abundant Caribbean food fish about 90 cm (35 inches) long, ...

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(Source: sanctuaries.noaa.gov)

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(Source: accretinglife.wordpress.com)

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hawaiian grouper midway 1998
(Source: reefseekers.com)

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grouper roi peacock fish
(Source: mamaknightly.blogspot.com)

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grouper scrawled teeth aluterus scriptus filefish bonaci mycteroperca
(Source: diver.net)

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hawaiian grouper flickr
(Source: www.flickr.com)

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(Source: www.pinterest.com)

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(Source: www.aqualifeimages.com)

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(Source: dicksandy.org)

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(Source: blog.seafoodwatch.org)

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Sources
1 blog.slidemoor.com - http://blog.slidemoor.com/gag-black-or-goliath-grouper/
2 www.roughfish.com - https://www.roughfish.com/content/gag-or-black-grouper
3 www.cuisinevault.com - https://www.cuisinevault.com/what-does-grouper-taste-like/
4 fishingbooker.com - https://fishingbooker.com/blog/types-of-grouper-in-florida/
5 www.pensacolafishingforum.com - https://www.pensacolafishingforum.com/threads/black-vs-gag.93358/
6 myfwc.com - https://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/saltwater/grouper/gag-grouper/
7 floridasportfishing.com - https://floridasportfishing.com/gag-grouper/
8 www.fishbuoy.com - https://www.fishbuoy.com/fish-species/saltwater-sports-fish/black-grouper
9 portal.ncdenr.org - http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/mf/grouper-gag
10 forums.floridasportsman.com - https://forums.floridasportsman.com/discussion/255043/black-grouper