In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.
Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “. Background informationBirth name Elizabeth Anne Harris Born (1980-07-15) July 15, 1980 (age 40) West Marin, California, U.S. Origin Astoria, Oregon Occupation(s)Musician, singer-songwriter, producerYears active2005–presentLabelsYELLOWELECTRIC, Root Strata, West 25th, Peak Oil, Cranky Associated acts Mirroring, Slow Walkers, RAM, Xiu, Ilya Ahmed, Inca Ore, Roy Montgomery, Helen, Niche Grouper is the solo project of American musician, artist and producer Liz Harris (born July 15, 1980).
Grouper released the critically acclaimed Dragging a Dead Deer Up a Hill in 2008, followed by five more records, including a two-part album, A A, and the piano-led album Ruins. Harris was born July 15, 1980, in Northern California and grew up around the San Francisco Bay Area.
She grew up in a Fourth Way commune there which was inspired by the philosophy of George Gurdjieff. The community was known as “The Group”, which would later serve as some inspiration for the moniker Grouper.
According to Harris, the kids called each other and the parents 'groupers' sort of as a defiance. She says: “It was us making our own identities inside a pretty controlled environment, and sort of lashing back maybe...
According to her, she “felt like the music was at its barest just a grouping of sounds, and I was just the grouper.” After finishing college, Harris briefly moved to Los Angeles, where she worked with Mayo Thompson at Patrick Painter.
Harris’ first album was 2005 ’s Grouper, a self-released full-length CD-R, followed later that year by Way Their Crept on Free Porcupine (re-released in 2007 on Type Records). Harris made available new material steadily through the years, and continued to collaborate with various artists such as Roy Montgomery and Bela.
Pitchfork gave it 8.2 stars calling the work “an arresting album of pastoral psychedelic pop”. Early in 2012, Grouper performed Violet Replacement in the UK and Europe, a pair of long form tape collage pieces which originally took shape for commissioned performances in New York and Berkeley.
Besides, she collaborated with Jess Fortin of Tiny Vipers to release an album Foreign Body under their common moniker Mirroring. At Berlin's Club Transmediale festival in early February 2012 Harris performed Circular Veil in collaboration with Were Cantu-Ledesma.
Somewhere between an installation and a performance, it found her extending her more concise music outward into eight hours of music, designed to mimic one full sleep cycle. Grouper's studio album titled Ruins was released on October 31, 2014.
The album is relatively stripped-down; piano, voice and field recordings. The majority of the album was recorded in Alter, Portugal in 2011, while Harris was on a residency set up by Valeria He dos Boys.
That same year she appeared on The Bug'album providing vocals for the track “Void”. In 2015, Grouper collaborated with an independent filmmaker Paul Clip son on the film Hypnosis Display, commissioned by Leeds Opera North.
In 2017, Grouper was one of the curators for the 11th edition of the Dutch Le Guess Who? Her curated program included films La Double Vie DE Véronique by Krzysztof Kielowski and Lighthouse by Paul Clip son and music performances from artists Marisa Anderson, William Basin ski, Marcia Bassett & Samara Labels duo, Boltzmann/Leigh, Skin Film, Meiji Having, Roy Montgomery, Coby SEY, Tiny Vipers, Wolfgang Vogt and Richard Young's.
During her days as a part of a Fourth Way commune, Harris' primary sources for discovering music were limited. With a little help from her parents, whose musical tastes were eccentric and divergent, she discovered Eastern European folk and American avant-pop.
Through her father, who himself was a composer, she would later discover contemporary classical and early music. In 2008, when she released Dragging a Dead Deer Up a Hill, Pitchfork compared it to classic ethereal releases from the British label 4AD, drawing comparisons to Cocteau Twins and early His Name Is Alive.
The Portland Mercury described some songs from the album, such as “Wind and Snow” and “Stuck”, sonically reminiscent of the Renaissance period composers Geraldo and Monteverdi. Collaboration with Jorge Behring er under the artist name “Flashlights" (2006) Visitor,, 10" vinyl.
Collaboration with Ilya Ahmed (2011) Foreign Body, vinyl and CD. Collaboration with Tiny Vipers under the artist name “Mirroring” (2012) Slow Walkers, vinyl.
Collaboration with Lawrence English under the artist name “Slow Walkers” (2013) The Event of Your Leaving, vinyl. Collaboration with Were Cantu-Ledesma under the artist name “RAM" (2013) Felt This Way/Dying All The Time, 7" Vinyl.
Collaboration with Jed Lineman and Scott Simmons under the artist name “Helen” (2013) Void and Black Wasp (taken from Angels and Devils and Exit EP), vinyl. Collaboration with The Bug (2014) The Original Faces, CD and LP.
Collaboration with Jed Lineman and Scott Simmons under the artist name “Helen” (2015) ^ Harris revealed her birthdate in a post via her official Instagram account, which reads: “Two months I squealed my way into the world on Ian Curtis birthday” (Curtis was born July 15, 1956).
Two months later I squealed my way into the world on Ian Curtis' birthday, who died two weeks after the eruption”. ^ “Listening & Playing Alone: The Strange World Of Grouper ".
Working Group Chair: Chris Hyper, University of Pennsylvania Internet2's Grouper enables project managers, departments, institutions and end users to create and manage institutional and personal groups, roles and permissions.
Also, species in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called groupers. Fish in the genus Plectropomus are referred to as coral groupers.
Sometimes other fish have common names with the word grouper “. David Attenborough in Blue Planet II series 1:3 Coral Reefs.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Cephalopods Species: Binomial name Cephalopods minima Synonyms Percy minima Formal, 1775 Epimetheus miniature (Formal, 1775) Serra nus miniature (Formal, 1775) Pomacentrus bird Labeled, 1802 Serra nus cyanostigmatoides Sleeker, 1849 Serra nus perguttatus DE Vi's, 1884 Cephalopods maculate Scale & B.A. Cephalopods minima has a body which is 2.6-3.0 times as long in standard length as it is deep.
The dorsal profile of the head is flat to slightly convex between the eyes. It has a rounded, finely serrated properly which has a fleshy lower edge.
The membranes of the dorsal fin has distinct indentations between its spines. The dorsal fin has 9 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays.
The color of the body is orange-red to reddish brown with many small bright blue spots which cover the head, body and the dorsal, anal and caudal fins. The color of the juveniles is orange to yellow with fewer widely separated faint blue spots.
They attain a maximum total length of 50 centimeters (20 in). Cephalopods minima is found in clear water where there are coastal and offshore coral reefs, it prefers exposed rather than protected areas.
Like other groupers this species is predatory; over 80% of its diet consists of small fish, predominantly sea oldies (Pseudanthias squamipinnis) which are ambushed by the coral hind in a sudden rush up from the substrate. They form harems consisting of a single male and up to 12 females.
The male defends the harem's territory which is around 475 square meters (5,110 sq ft) in area, each female has a smaller territory which she defends against other females. Coral hinds are protogynous hermaphrodite, and they change sex from female to male.
The male patrols the territory and visits each female, swimming parallel to each other when they meet. Cephalopods minima is an important species in commercial fisheries at the local level and is caught using hook and line, fish traps and spears.
It is a colorful species and is popular in public Aquarian and forms a minor part of the aquarium trade. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). ^ “Coral Cod, Cephalopods minima (Formal, 1775)”.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus Aeneas Synonyms Serra nus Aeneas Geoffrey Saint-Nazaire, 1817 China Aeneas (Geoffrey Saint-Nazaire, 1817) Percy robust Couch, 1832 Epimetheus Aeneas juvenile The white grouper has a head which is longer than its body is deep, the standard length being 3 to 3.6 times the depth of the body.
The properly is angular and has with 3 to 6 large spines at its angle, the lowest being directed downwards. The caudal fin is rounded and the body is covered in small scales which are set within thick skin.
The overall color is greenish bronze with darker fins which are brownish purple and have white or pale margins. There are 3 or 4 pale blue or white lines across the gill cover, these can be quite faint in larger adults.
The white grouper is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from southern Portugal and southern Spain south along the western coast of Africa as far south as Angola, including the islands in the Gulf of Guinea. It is found in the southern and eastern Mediterranean but appears to be expanding its range northwards being formerly absent north of 44°N in the Adriatic Sea and to be absent from the central Mediterranean but there have been records from Corsica and Monaco, among other recent northerly Mediterranean Sea records.
There is a history of vagrancy in this species and the synonym Percy robust was based on a specimen taken in Cornwall in southwestern England. The white grouper occurs on substrates of rock or mud and sand while the juveniles are found in coastal lagoons and estuaries, and adults are found at depths between 20 and 200 meters (66 and 656 ft).
This is a carnivorous species and off West Africa it was found that 58% of their diet is made up of fishes, 21% of stomatopods, 10% of crabs and 10% of cephalopods. There is a seasonal migration of this species off the coats of Senegal and Mauritania which is linked to an upwelling off the coasts of those nations.
They are protogynous hermaphrodites with the females reaching sexual maturity on attainment of a total length of 50 to 60 centimeters (20 to 24 in) and at an age of 5–7 years and the sex change to males occurs when they are 10 to 13 years old. Off Tunisia this species spawns during June and July while in Iskenderun Bay in Turkey, spawning starts in early June and continues up to late August. The white grouper is a very important quarry species for fisheries throughout its range, fishermen use hook-and-line and trawls to catch it.
In Senegalese waters, artisanal fishers are the main Flanders of this species, however, there is a local commercial fishery which is set up for the export market, mainly to Europe. Overfishing is the major threat to the white grouper.
Even where protected it has been targeted by poachers using spear guns and lights at night. It has been bred in aquaculture at the Israeli National Center for Mari culture.
The Atlantic Goliath grouper or Tamara (Epimetheus Tamara), also known as the Jewish, is a large saltwater fish of the grouper family found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths from 5 to 50 m (16 to 164 ft). Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast.
On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts. In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal.
Young Atlantic Goliath groupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers. They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb).
The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961. Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic Goliath grouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen.
It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature. They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations.
Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline. The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico.
The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.
Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. In May 2015, the Atlantic Goliath grouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time.
Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara. In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter.
It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe. In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive.
^ Lovato, Cleo nice Maria Cardozo; Soars, Bruno Clears; Begot, Tiago Octavio Buffalo; Montage, Luciano Coach de Assis (January 2016). “Tidal pools as habitat for juveniles of the Goliath grouper Epimetheus Tamara (Lichtenstein 1822) in the Amazonian coastal zone, Brazil”.
Risky, Delaney C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H. (2015). “ Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.
Mycteroperca microbes, the gag, gag grouper, velvet rock fish or charcoal belly, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a grouper from the subfamilyEpinephelinae which is part of the familySerranidae, which also includes the antics and sea basses. It comes from warmer parts of the West Atlantic, including the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.
It is a drab, mottled-gray fish lacking the distinguishing features of most other groupers. Its pattern of markings resembles the box-shaped spots of the black grouper (Mycteroperca Monaco).
Mycteroperca microbes has an oblong, robust body which is laterally compressed. The depth of the body is normally less than the length of the head
The standard length is three to three and a half times the depth of the body. The dorsal profile of the head is convex and the properly has a rounded lobe at its angle which is has enlarged serrations.
The adult females and the juveniles are normally pale gray to brown-grey marked with darker blotches and wavy lines that give a marbled appearance to the upper flanks and back. When resting they often assume a camouflage pattern with 5 dark brown saddles separated by white bars along the base of the dorsal fin.
The large adult males are typically pale to medium gray in color, with an indistinct reticulated pattern underneath the dorsal fin. They are darker gray or black on the breast and belly, with a similar color on the margins of the soft rated part of the dorsal find the caudal fin, as well as the posterior margins of the pectoral and pelvic fins.
This species attains a maximum total length of 145 centimeters (57 in) although 50 centimeters (20 in) is a more common length, and the maximum published weight attained is 36.5 kilograms (80 lb). Mycteroperca microbes have different habitat preferences as juveniles and adults.
The juveniles are found in estuaries and beds of seagrass while the adults are found farther offshore over rocky substrates at depths of 40 to 10 meters (131 to 33 ft) and have been recorded as deep as 152 meters (499 ft). It is one of the commonest species of grouper on the eastern Gulf of Mexico.
They have been recorded producing thumping sounds when under stress, this is done by vibrating the swim bladder using muscular contractions. The adults are predators on fishes (including smaller conspecifics), crabs, shrimps, and cephalopods while the smaller juveniles prey on crustaceans within the beds of seagrass in shallow waters.
The fishes preyed are largely herring, sea bream, jacks and pompanos, drums and gray mullet. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite, all fish start life as females, attaining sexual maturity between the ages of 5 and 6 years old and having reached a total length of 67 to 75 centimeters (26 to 30 in), they will spawn at least once and then some will change sex and become males.
In the offshore waters between North Carolina and Florida during 1976-1982 the sex ration was found to favor females, with 84% of the population being female, 15% were males and 1% were in the process of sex change. In the Atlantic coastal waters between North Carolina and Florida there are annual migrations in late winter, these migrations involve sexually mature fishes moving to offshore spawning grounds where at depths of 70 meters (230 ft).
The spawning season in this region runs from December through May, peaking in late March and early April. After spawning the females move towards shallower waters, with depths less than 30 meters (98 ft) while the males prefer waters of 50 to 90 meters (160 to 300 ft) They maximum recorded age is 31 years.
Mycteroperca microbes is targeted by commercial and recreational fisheries using handling, bottom longline and speargun. Fishermen target the spawning aggregation while the juveniles are frequently caught as by catch in the bait-shrimp fishery that fishes over seagrass beds.
There have been reports of ciguatera poisoning among humans following the consumption of flesh from M. microbes. This species is threatened by and is vulnerable to overfishing and both Mexico and the United States have introduced conservation measures.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). No more patches, no more confusing upgrades, no more inconsistent environments, no more lengthy installsContainer redesign One servlet container, easier mounts, one directory structure, fewer processes, maven build, matchless Grouper installer installs container Grouper installer wizard walks through running Grouper in container Improve pagination in Is Cursor based paging allows fewer memory problems and paging which does not skip records Gantt chart for jobs See when jobs have executed, job overlap, how long jobs take, success or error Add new web services Get audit log Web Serviced point in time options for Is get members, get groups, group save, get memberships Attributes on memberships in UI Allow direct and indirect attributes on memberships in UI (see JIRA).
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Saw tail grouper Data Deficient (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Mycteroperca Species: Binomial name Mycteroperca prior The saw tail grouper has a body which is elongated, robust and compressed with its depth being the same at the origin of the dorsal fin as it is at the origin of the anal fin.
The juveniles are pale gray or whitish with small brown spots and a few bigger ellipsoid brown blotches. The adults are similar but have more numerous spots and the blotches are indistinct.
This species attains a total length of 105 centimeters (41 in) and a maximum published weight of 14.1 kilograms (31 lb). The saw tail grouper is found at depths from 10 to 90 meters (33 to 295 ft).
It is occurs in rocky reefs and it is commonest in areas where there are large boulders with Oregonians and black corals. This is a predatory species which feeds on small fishes in daytime and crustaceans at night.
It is thought that it is a protogynous hermaphrodite with the older reproductively functional females changing to males. It is known that they form spawning aggregations, frequently in association with Mycteroperca rosacea and these have been observed in April and May.
The saw tail grouper is considered to be an excellent food fish and is an important target species, among other grouper species, for small scale fisheries in the northern Gulf of California. Poachers fish illegally at night for saw tails grouper using spears, hookah breathing apparatus and lights, taking a significant number of fish.
Shore fishes of the Eastern Pacific online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). ^ a b Free, Trainer and Paul, Daniel, eds.