In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.
Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
HABITAT: Both juveniles and adults frequent inshore holes and ledges, often on deeper grass flats. DESCRIPTION: Gray or light brown with wavy markings on the side that generally do not form boxes or circles.
Color deepens to dark brown shortly after removal from water. GAME QUALITIES: An aggressive striker and hard fighter at all depths.
Offshore bottom fishermen tend toward stout rods with 50- and 80-pound-test lines, but such grouper digging” rigs are strictly necessary only in very deep water. Many anglers catch lots of Gags on spinning and plug tackle.
Hard-lure casters use Deadhead jigs, mostly, while rollers rely on large deep-diving plugs. Live bait fish of various sorts are the best natural offerings-try Pilchards, Pinkish, Grunts or Sand Perch (Squirrel fish).
Dead small fish and large cut baits also work well. BLACK GROUPER (Mycteroperca Monaco) OTHER NAMES: Monaco Ararat Again RANGE: Sometimes encountered in the deep Gulf and upper Atlantic, but common only in South Florida, the Keys and the Bahamas.
HABITAT: Blacks of many sizes are commonly found around the edges of coral reefs, from about 30 feet of water out to the deepest drop offs. Even big fish, however, may roam to much shallower patch reefs, especially in cooler seasons.
SIZE: The largest of our Mycteroperca groupers, the Black frequently exceeds 50 pounds in weight and can top 100. TACKLE AND BAITS: For all-around work, ocean gear with lines of 30-pound test or higher gets the call.
One key besides a huge helping of luck is to hook the fish while drifting, instead of at anchor. The drift of the boat adds to the power of the tackle and just might help drag the big fish far enough away from his rocky “hole” that he cannot get back.
Pinkish and Pilchards are good too, as are Mullet heads and other large cut baits. Best casting lures are Deadhead jigs, weighing from 1-4 ounces, depending on depth.
Trolling over the reefs with rigged, swimming Mullet, feather-and-strip combos, and large plugs also takes many. DESCRIPTION: Shows various colors, including two major phases, one of which would make it difficult to tell from the Black Grouper were it not for the bright yellow trim of the pectoral fins.
SCAMP (Mycteroperca final) OTHER NAMES: Brown Grouper, Broom tail Grouper, Amadeo RANGE: Most plentiful along the Gulf Coast and roughly the upper half of the Florida Atlantic Coast. Not common in South Florida and the Bahamas, where it is largely replaced by the similar Yellow mouth Grouper (next).
HABITAT: Sometimes fairly close to shore, but generally sticks to deep reefs and ledges offshore. Elongated rays of the caudal fin give the broom tail appearance.
GAME QUALITIES: Outstanding on light tackle, but most are overpowered by heavy gear. TACKLE AND BAITS: Sheer depth-typical of many Panhandle bottom-fishing drops-may necessitate rods and lines stout enough to handle very heavy sinkers.
Deadhead jigs weighing 3/4 of an ounce to 11/2 ounces get lots of strikes with light gear-and if the bare jig isn't producing, it can be tipped with a strip of cut bait, or a whole small bait fish, and used as a bottom fishing rig. Large diving plugs draw strikes in fairly shallow water-to about 50 feet.
YELLOWMOUTH GROUPER (Mycteroperca interstitial is) OTHER NAMES: Salmon Rock fish RANGE: Most common in the Bahamas but found in South Florida, especially the Keys, and on Gulf reefs. HABITAT: Occasionally on shallow patches, but more on deeper reefs to 120 feet or so near the edge of blue water.
DESCRIPTION: Almost a ringer for the Scamp, except that the inside and corners of the mouth are yellow. GAME QUALITIES: A tough fighter on tackle of reasonable size.
TIGER GROUPER (Mycteroperca Tigris) OTHER NAMES: Monaco NATO RANGE: More common in the Bahamas, but seen fairly often in the Keys. DESCRIPTION: Dark markings against a dusty gray background form vivid oblique stripes on the upper sides.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Heavy spinning and bait casting outfits, along with light boat rods and lines up to 20- or 30-pound test. Tigers will take a variety of artificial, including jigs and trolling plugs.
HABITAT: Juveniles to around 100 pounds frequent mangrove creeks and bays of Southwest Florida, especially the Ten A Thousand Islands and Everglades National Park. Adults can be found at a variety of depths, from holes and channels of coastal waters out to offshore ledges and reefs; also around pilings of bridges and under deepwater docks and piers.
Juveniles are brilliantly marked with a series of irregular dark brown bars against a light brown or gray background, extending from head to tail. Numerous black spots are usually present as well on head, sides and fins.
Adults have the same pattern but in more subdued shades of brown that are not so brilliantly contrasted. The tail is round, as are the posterior, dorsal, anal and pectoral fins.
FOOD VALUE: Small ones excellent and big ones darn good which was the main reason for their precipitous decline and total closure in Florida in the 1980s. Some very big ones have been caught on very light lines in shallow water after being coaxed away from obstructions, but the giant Jewish around deep wrecks defy the heaviest sporting tackle.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Bait casting, spinning and even fly tackle make acceptable matchups for the inshore fish, which will and often do hit the full range of lures and flies that are used by Shook casters. WARSAW GROUPER (Epimetheus nitrites) OTHER NAMES: Giant Grouper, Black Jewish, Garuda Neurite RANGE: All Florida coasts, Atlantic and Gulf, but not reported from the Bahamas.
Party boats working offshore waters of the state's upper half both Gulf and Atlantic seem to bring in Warsaw's more often than elsewhere. Large specimens (which most are) can be somewhat coarse unless the fillets are cut into thin steaks for frying or baking.
GAME QUALITIES: Great strength is the hallmark of the Warsaw's fighting arsenal, and the angler who gets one on a manual rod and reel will know he's been in a tug-of-war. TACKLE AND BAITS: Only the heaviest rods, large reels and lines testing 80 pounds or more are really adequate.
Catches on lighter tackle are opportunistic and rare, and usually of the smaller specimens. Fairly large whole fish, or halved bonito and other hefty cut baits are all productive whenever they can be dropped to within gulping range of a Warsaw.
RED GROUPER (Epimetheus Mario) OTHER NAMES: Hero, China De Vivero RANGE: Common throughout Florida; also present in the Bahamas and common in some areas. HABITAT: Widely distributed from close inshore in many areas of Florida to ledges and wrecks in up to 300 or so feet of water.
DESCRIPTION: Overall light or rusty red with whitish spots and large blotches. No black mark on caudal peduncle fleshy area between tail and posterior dorsal fin.
Although Reds will “hole up” like other Groupers, many are hooked on light and fairly light tackle in areas where cover is well scattered, and this gives them the chance to demonstrate their toughness to best advantage. They are ready strikers on Deadhead jigs, fished with light tackle.
HABITAT: Prefers coral reefs, and probably does not roam into water much deeper than 120 feet or so. In the Islands, small specimens are common over inshore patches, and also in creeks and channels.
DESCRIPTION: Looks much like the Red Grouper in shape and pattern, although the basic coloration tends more to brown or gray than reddish. FOOD VALUE: Small ones are excellent; fish over 10 pounds are almost as good, but harvest is currently prohibited in Florida.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Most are caught by potluck reef or creek fishermen on light ocean gear or stout bait casting and spinning outfits-all using lines of 12-20 pounds. Cut fish, conch or squid all make good baits, and Nassau's will also strike jigs, spoons and underwater or surface plugs.
Bigger fish on rough coral reefs require heavy tackle for bottom-fishing, and can also be caught by trolling with feather-and-strip baits or with large swimming plugs. RED HIND (Epimetheus Gustavus) OTHER NAMES: Strawberry, Sandwich Grouper, Cabrillo, Sofia RANGE: Very plentiful on Bahamas reefs in 40-80 feet.
Caudal, anal and posterior dorsal fins edged in black. TACKLE AND BAITS: In some reef areas of the Bahamas, Red Hinds can be caught to the point of boredom by drifting and bouncing the bottom with jigs.
ROCK HIND (Epimetheus ascensions) OTHER NAMES: Rock Cod, Cabre Morey, Hero Cabrillo RANGE: Widespread in Florida and the Bahamas, often in company with the Red Hind, but usually less plentiful in southern portions of the range. DESCRIPTION: The Rock Hind is mostly brown or tan in background color.
Has spots similar to those of the Red Hind, but also is marked by large, dark blotches on the upper sides usually two, but often more. SIZE: About the same as the Red Hind, but maximum may be slightly larger to 8 or 9 pounds.
CONEY (Epimetheus Julius) OTHER NAMES: Golden Coney, Golden Grouper, Cultivar, Crunch RANGE: South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean. DESCRIPTION: A very small Grouper, the Coney is seen in various color phases, including vivid yellow, gold-and-brown, red-and-brown.
Grassy (Epimetheus orientates) OTHER NAMES: Enable, Cuba Cabrillo RANGE: South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean. GAME QUALITIES: Aggressive striker, sometimes on surprisingly large lures, but too small to put up a fight.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Like the Coney, a common reef catch when small hooks are used. SPECKLED HIND (Epimetheus drummondhayi) OTHER NAMES: Kitty Mitchell, Calico Grouper RANGE: Both coasts of Florida, but most often caught in the Keys and this is probably because of heavy fishing around well-known seamounts or “humps,” particularly off the Keys towns of Marathon and Islamabad.
DESCRIPTION: Generally dark gray or reddish brown, with a profusion of small, creamy or white spots on sides, gill covers and fins. It is theorized that the great pressures under which they live helps make the flesh more succulent.
GAME QUALITIES: Seldom caught on sporting gear, but when they are especially if that gear is a reasonably light outfit, the fight begins strong but diminishes fast as the fish is brought higher in the water column. MARBLED GROUPER (Epimetheus INERIS) RANGE: Bahamas and South Florida.
DESCRIPTION: Dark brown or charcoal with numerous white spots. TACKLE AND BAITS: Power reels and cut bait fish or squid.
SNOWY GROUPER (Epimetheus hiatus) OTHER NAMES: Golden Grouper RANGE: Occurs in deep water throughout Florida and the Western Bahamas; probably Eastern Bahamas as well. DESCRIPTION: Dark gray or brown with scattered whitish spots.
Dorsal, pectoral and anal fins have yellow outer edges. Likes rocky areas, wrecks, channels with hard bottom, jetties, deep holes in grass flats.
DESCRIPTION: Color is generally black or charcoal, with blue highlights and tiny white spots or stripes on dorsal fin. The flesh is mild and white but, sadly, most Sea Bass caught these days are too small to be worthwhile.
The occasional outsize specimen should be filleted and skinned, but take care when doing so, because gill covers are sharp and so are the spines. GAME QUALITIES: A hard and willing striker on both natural baits and a variety of artificial lures.
Sea Bass greedily hit live or dead shrimp and all sorts of cut baits, along with live small bait fish and artificial jigs and underwater plugs. SAND PERCH (Di plectrum Formosa) OTHER NAMES: Coral Snapper, Squirrel fish, Solo RANGE: Both coasts of Florida, north to south.
HABITAT: Sand Perch are found from bays and shorelines to well offshore over a variety of bottoms. They seem to prefer rather open bottom with patches of grass or scattered rock, and they also like deep channels.
DESCRIPTION: Slender, cylindrical shape, with large mouth and wide tail. Color is tan with brown vertical bars or blotches, and full-length horizontal lines of blue and orange.
GAME QUALITIES: Very aggressive, Sand Perch often hit baits and lures meant for much larger fish. Gag grouper are also found inshore, but these fish are much smaller on average than what you can catch offshore.
Average catches inshore usually range from 5 to 10 pounds, which is still a really nice fish, and they taste great. Inshore, anglers target gag grouper along the mangroves, around docks, near bridges, around oyster beds, in deep water holes and along ledges.
Some live baits that work well for gag grouper are crabs, pinkish, sand perch, shrimp and squid. Goliath grouper, also called Jewish, are becoming some of the most exciting fish to catch in the United States.
Inshore, anglers can find tons of these big fish near docks, bridges, in deep holes and on ledges. Smaller Goliath grouper can be found in the estuaries around oyster bars, docks and mangrove-lined shorelines.
Offshore, Goliath grouper can be found on the reefs and wrecks in very deep water. Goliath grouper eat a variety of different baits, but most anglers will target them with jack crevasse, mullet, menhaden and sting rays.
Scamp Grouper are found around nearshore and offshore reefs and wrecks. Warsaw Grouper are found in very deep offshore waters, and they grow very big.
Yellow edge Grouper are usually found in very deep water on the offshore reefs. The Yellow fin Grouper is found in deep water on offshore reefs.
Grouper fish, otherwise known as part of the Serranidae family, are a large saltwater carnivorous species with a wide variety in size and color. The fact these guys can live from 10 to 13 years means you need to be fully aware of what committing to a Grouper fish entails.
Aside from their large size and lifespan, they are also immensely charming and intelligent, full of a personality unique only to them. Grouper fish come in many sizes and colors, but the fact remains that even smaller variations will grow to be quite large.
The Panther Grouper fish is a soft brown, dotted with large spots that can assume a length of 27 inches. Make sure to thoroughly research the specific breed for the differences in behavior and size, as the uniqueness between each is not surface level only.
If you suspect something in your aquarium has transmitted the sickness, then remove the item or fish and clean the tank. However, if the tank provided is large enough to dilute the toxins being released, you may get away with purchasing some buddies that are slightly larger than them.
Then rearrange the decor in the tank to break up any established habits or territories so your other fish won’t feel threatened by the newcomer. Introduce the Grouper at night after you’ve typically turned off all your lights, so the other fish will begin settling down.
Large with the appetite to match, they produce a great deal of waste that makes a supplemental filtration system a wise investment. Make sure your tank has a generous amount of live rock, a protein skimmer, and a decent current within the water.
Grouper fish are predators, needing a varied and full diet of meats such as scallops, shrimp, and squid. If you can’t get to your local seafood provider for fresh items, buy a variety of frozen bait fish.
Any kind of predator is going to be used to eating the whole fish, bones and bits included, so providing them with the whole animal helps maintain their health. Whatever they don’t eat beyond those five minutes should be removed from the tank to avoid any water quality or filtration problems.
While that is something you can do, understand that Groupers are slightly more intelligent creatures than some marine fish and can be susceptible to boredom. This makes live fish the most appealing option, but if you provide them with wiggling food they don’t eat right away, there’s no need to be alarmed.
For introducing new food that your Grouper fish doesn’t seem too interested in, place it on a stick and insert it into the water. Nabob skewers should be fine for this practice so long as the pointed end is removed and no splinters poke out.
Gulf grouper are large fish that live in shallow, coastal areas during their first 2 years of their life, before moving on to rocky reefs and kelp beds. Gulf grouper used to be very common in the eastern Pacific Ocean, but they became scarce because commercial and recreational fisherman could easily catch them.
Their abundance has severely declined since the mid-20th century primarily because of direct harvest by commercial and artisanal fisheries. Outside a known population in Bahia Magdalena, there is no published evidence of gulf grouper along the Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.
Adult gulf grouper are mainly found around rocky reefs, underwater mountains, and kelp beds. Gulf grouper are also likely protogynous hermaphroditic, which means that they mature as females and later transition into males.
Adult gulf grouper gather in large groups to reproduce once per year. They gather at reefs and underwater mountains and form spawning aggregations from April to June.
Activities that may degrade their habitat include the release of contaminants, such as urban runoff, wastewater, or oil and gas spills. Pollution can also reduce the amount of oxygen in the water or deliver chemicals that are toxic to these fish.
Physical barriers, such as shoreline and offshore development can also threaten gulf grouper by limiting their access to important breeding or feeding areas. Overfishing Direct harvest of gulf grouper, especially at spawning aggregation sites, is the biggest threat to the species.
This means that there are fewer male groupers left in the oceans, which makes reproduction more difficult. Grouper is a firm white fish found in coastal waters of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.
This fish is a member of the sea bass family and lends itself to a variety of cooking methods (baking, broiling, poaching) due to its firm texture. The skin should be removed prior to cooking due to its strong flavor.
Groupers generally feed on fish, octopuses, crabs and lobster. The Black Grouper is one of the most popular Key West game fish because it gives a hard fight and is delicious.
The Black Grouper has an oblong body shape and a large head with a protruding lower jaw and prominent canine teeth. The body is olive or gray-colored, with dark rectangular blotches and small hexagonal bronze spots on the head and lower side.
Black Groupers mainly live near the surface at depths ranging from 19 to 108 feet, and juveniles can be found in seagrass beds off of the coast of Florida. Black Grouper are plentiful around such structure, and they bite readily when large baits are lowered.
All Groupers are known for their strength when hooked, and the Black is no exception, so fairly heavy tackle will be needed to bring one to the surface. Since Black Grouper always live near structure, when hooked they will try to run for their shelter, and a fish of 20 pounds or more will usually be able to get into its hole unless the angler is ready to keep it out with heavy tackle and plenty of strength.
Larger fish frequent deeper waters, and hooking one of these brutes will result in a serious battle. (Important) Please Click HERE to double-check our supplier's website for in-stock on your order to prevent delay.
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