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Grouper Sea Bass

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Danielle Fletcher
• Saturday, 14 November, 2020
• 21 min read

Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.

bass sea wild grouper arctic duper really super
(Source: www.arctic-cloudberry.com)

Contents

In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.

Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.

They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.

They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.

They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.

mero fish bass sea grouper
(Source: www.flickr.com)

In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.

The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.

Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 Groupers are mostly monastic protogynous hermaphrodites, i.e. they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity.

The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.

If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.

grouper fresh bottomfish bass sea upu fish hapu hilo
(Source: hilofish.com)

The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.

Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.

Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.

Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.

In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.

grouper goliath catch they fl between biggest species them underwater pound found being fishermen differences divers
(Source: www.reelpursuits.com)

In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).

^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea ".

“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.

^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.

Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.

bass sea bluefish fishing groupers tiles report fish fishtrack november
(Source: www.fishtrack.com)

A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.

Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.

Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.

^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.

^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.

grouper spearfishing trophy miami want read
(Source: settingsteel-spearfishing.blogspot.com)

Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “. Scientific classification Domain: Eukaryote Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Cephalopods Species: Binomial name Cephalopods minima Synonyms Percy minima Formal, 1775 Epimetheus miniature (Formal, 1775) Serra nus miniature (Formal, 1775) Pomacentrus bird Labeled, 1802 Serra nus cyanostigmatoides Sleeker, 1849 Serra nus perguttatus DE Vi's, 1884 Cephalopods maculate Scale & B.A.

Cephalopods minima has a body which is 2.6-3.0 times as long in standard length as it is deep. The dorsal profile of the head is flat to slightly convex between the eyes.

It has a rounded, finely serrated properly which has a fleshy lower edge. The membranes of the dorsal fin has distinct indentations between its spines.

The dorsal fin has 9 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays. The color of the body is orange-red to reddish brown with many small bright blue spots which cover the head, body and the dorsal, anal and caudal fins.

The color of the juveniles is orange to yellow with fewer widely separated faint blue spots. They attain a maximum total length of 50 centimeters (20 in).

grouper bass sea fish vector barsch mero
(Source: www.dreamstime.com)

Cephalopods minima is found in clear water where there are coastal and offshore coral reefs, it prefers exposed rather than protected areas. Like other groupers this species is predatory, over 80% of its diet consists of small fish, predominantly sea oldies (Pseudanthias squamipinnis) which are ambushed by the coral hind in a sudden rush up from the substrate.

The male defends the harem's territory which is around 475 square meters (5,110 sq ft) in area, each female has a smaller territory which she defends against other females. Coral hinds are protogynous hermaphrodite, and they change sex from female to male.

The male patrols the territory and visits each female, swimming parallel to each other when they meet. Cephalopods minima is an important species in commercial fisheries at the local level and is caught using hook and line, fish traps and spears.

It is a colorful species and is popular in public Aquarian and forms a minor part of the aquarium trade. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). ^ “Coral Cod, Cephalopods minima (Formal, 1775)”.

grouper gulf snowy rod caught mexico fishing giant recommendation drop deep ft
(Source: www.thebassbarn.com)

Dorsal fin is often notched, rarely divided to base, and has 2 to 11 spines and 10 to 27 soft rays. Caudal fin usually rounded, truncate, marginate, or late, rarely forked, and has 13 to 16 branched rays.

They are highly variable, with patterns of spots, light or dark stripes, vertical or oblique bars, or nearly plain. Habitats Species of Serranidae Family occur worldwide in tropical and subtropical to temperate waters and occasionally in freshwater.

They are typically reversal (bottom dwellers) fishes, ranging from shallow coastal waters to pretty depths, but most species of the family occur on continental or insular shelves. Except for breeding aggregations, most species are solitary, but some (Subfamily Antoine) occur in groups apparently feeding on zooplankton a few meters above the bottom.

Most of the members of this family are voracious predators feeding on ray-finned fishes and invertebrates (mainly crustaceans, polytheists and cephalopods). Some species have long, numerous gill makers and are thus adapted for feeding on zooplankton.

Synchronous Hermaphroditus, with both sexes functional at the same time in a single individual, is characteristic of most species in the Subfamily Serraninae. Importance The larger members of the family are considered to be excellent highly-priced food substance.

bass fish sea saltwater fishing grouper decal camp boat window rv auto
(Source: www.ebay.com)

The smaller errands, particularly the colorful Antoine, Liopropomatini, and Serraninae are of value as aquarium fishes. Although similar in appearance to the gag, the black grouper has a more vivid color pattern that may include brassy, bronze spots on the side of the head and body and, sometimes, dark, rectangular blotches running the length of the back.

The brownish-gray body of the gag is covered with thin, dark, worm like markings often grouped in blotches that give the fish a marbled look. The giant of the grouper family, the Goliath (formerly called Jewish) has brown or yellow mottling with small black spots on the head and fins and has a gargantuan mouth with jawbones that extend well past its small eyes.

Its five irregular, dark body bands, or stripes, are most visible on young Goliath. Marbled grouper are dark brown or charcoal with numerous white spots.

Juveniles are black or dark brown, covered with irregular white spots and blotches; adult’s mottled grayish brown with white speckles and small black spots that tend to be arranged in rings. A wide, brown stripe runs on each side of the head from the upper snout to the forward base of the dorsal fin.

There is a broad, black patch that rests like a saddle on top of the narrow part of the tail. Their colorful, zebra-like appearance has made them a favorite photo subject for divers’ magazines.

wreckfish americanus grouper fish goliath biggest bass sea giant caught ocean record pound saltwater fishes largest monster massive kg
(Source: bigfishesoftheworld.blogspot.com)

Nassau grouper form large spawning aggregations, which makes this species highly vulnerable to over harvest. Red grouper is a brownish-red fish with scattered pale blotches, black dots around the eyes, and dark-tipped dorsal, anal, and tail fins.

The light gray or brown body of the scamp is covered with reddish-brown spots that tend to be grouped into lines. Dark gray all over, the snowy grouper ’s name derives from the obscure white spots arranged in a definite geometric pattern over the body.

The Tiger Grouper is a large beautiful lurk-and-lunge hunter who catches its prey by finding a hiding place in the reef and then waiting patiently for an unsuspecting small fish to swim nearby. Then, with a quick lunge, it opens its jaws to swallow its meal in an easy gulp.

A uniform brown in color, the Warsaw grouper has no spots or stripes to make it stand out from the crowd. Adults feed on bottom dwelling animals, including squid, octopus, crabs, eels, lizard fish, seahorses, scorpion fish, and sea robins.

The yellow fin Grouper, also called the rock fish, is variably colored, commonly olive green with rows of rounded, irregular, dark splotches on its back. Yellow mouth grouper is reef-associated and found mainly on rocky or coral bottoms from the shoreline to at least 55 m depth.

sea deep fishing florida bass grouper clearwater
(Source: www.youtube.com)

Artwork: Les Data © Secretariat of the Pacific Community Scientific Name: Epimetheus Quercus Hawaiian Name: Hapuupuu Japanese Name: Mahatma Groupers are able to change skin colors to blend into their natural habitat, and the hap`UPU`u is no exception.

Most hap`UPU`u seen in the market are black, but fish captured in certain locations may be brownish or reddish. Hap`UPU`u is noted for its clear white flesh that is almost as delicate in taste as that of Hawaii’s deepwater snappers.

Texture: Delicate Flavor: Mild Suggested Preparations: Steamed, Baked, Poached, Deep-Fried, Soup Hawaii Sea Bass, also known as hapuupuu is an excellent source of healthy, extra lean protein.

Nutrition Facts 1 each: 198 calories, 14g fat (8g saturated fat), 54 mg cholesterol, 353 mg sodium, 7g carbohydrate (3g sugars, 1g fiber), 12g protein. The red grouper is one of the most important species of fish caught off the southeast coast of the Unite States.

Color is variable and can change, however the head and body are generally dark brown with a reddish cast, shading to pink or reddish below, with pale poorly defined pale areas and small black spots around the eye. The soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins are dark with narrow white edges.

grouper goliath huge sea fish fishing giant groupers record vs history shark deep water brazil creepy unnatural saltwater monster file
(Source: www.york.ac.uk)

Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are mainly found resting in potholes on, or edges close to, rocky flat bottoms in depths up to 1000 ft. Red grouper rarely occur around coral reefs. Like many fish species in the wrasse family, young gag grouper are predominantly female, transforming into males as they grow larger.

The coloration of this species is extremely variable but generally brownish gray overall with a pattern of dark, worm-like or kiss-shaped markings along the sides. Gags can be distinguished from black grouper, Mycteroperca Monaco, that often occur in the same habitat by the distinctive color pattern and the shape of the properly (the middle bone of the gill cover).

Juvenile gags reside in estuaries and seagrass beds while adults are usually found offshore on hard substrate in water depths of 60-250 feet (rarely to 300 feet) and occasionally inshore on rocky or grassy bottom. Wrecks and oil rigs in shallow shelf waters of the Gulf also attract many gag grouper.

Prohibited harvest of Goliath grouper in SMS. Implemented Special Management Zones (SMS) off SC and GA. Regulatory Amendment 2 (1989) Established two artificial reefs off Ft. Pierce, FL as SMS.

Regulatory Amendment 3 (1989) Established an artificial reef at Key Biscayne, FL as an SMS in Made County, FL; prohibited fish trapping, bottom long lining, spearfishing and harvesting of Goliath grouper in SMS. Amendment 3 (1991) Established a management program for the wreck fish fishery which: added wreck fish to the snapper grouper management unit; defined Of and overfishing; required an annual permit to fish for, land or sell wreck fish; established a control date of March 28, 1990, for the area bounded by 33° and 30° N. latitude; established a fishing year beginning April 16; established a process whereby annual quotas would be specified; implemented a 10,000 pound trip limit and a January 15 – April 15spawning season closure.

snapper mutton grouper donna frank lisa sea offshore stuart nov rigs deep drop bass tim fishing
(Source: coastalanglermag.com)

Amendment 4 (1992) Prohibited the use of various gear, including fish traps, the use of bottom longlines for wreck fish, and power heads in Special Management Zones off SC; established bag limits and minimum size limits for several species; established income requirements to qualify for permits; and required that all snapper grouper species possessed in South Atlantic federal waters must have heads and fins intact through landing. Regulatory Amendment 6 (May 1995) Includes provisions to rebuild and protect dogfish by implementing a recreational bag limit of 5 per person off Florida; cuber snapper by implementing a recreational bag limit of 2 per person for fish 30” total length or larger off Florida; and gray trigger fish by implementing a minimum size limit of 12 inches off Florida.

Regulatory Amendment 7 (1999) Established 10 SMS at artificial reefs off South Carolina. Amendment 9 (1999) Increased the red porgy minimum size limit from 12" TL to 14" TL for both recreational and commercial fishermen, established a recreational bag limit of 5 red porgy per person per day, prohibit harvest and possession in excess of the bag limit during March and April, and prohibited purchase and sale during March and April.

Increased the black sea bass minimum size limit from 8" TL to 10" TL for both recreational and commercial fishermen, and established a recreational bag limit of 20 black sea bass per person per day. Established measures for greater amber jack that: reduced the recreational bag limit from 3 to 1 greater amber jack per person per day, maintained the prohibition on harvest and possession in excess of the bag limit during April, established a quota at 63% of 1995 landings (quota=1,169,931 pounds), began the fishing year on May 1, prohibited sale of fish harvested under the bag limit when the season is closed, and prohibited coring.

Increased the gag grouper minimum size limit from 20" TL to 24" TL for both recreational and commercial fishermen, prohibited harvest and possession in excess of the bag limit during March and April, and prohibited purchase and sale during March and April. Increased the black grouper minimum size limit from 20" to 24" TL for both recreational and commercial fishermen, prohibited harvest and possession in excess of the bag limit during March and April, and prohibited purchase and sale during March and April.

Amendment 11 (1999) Amended the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) as required to make definitions of May, Of, overfishing and overfished consistent with “National Standard Guidelines”; identified and defined fishing communities and addressed by catch management measures. Amendment 13A (2004) Extended regulations within the Celina Experimental Closed Area off the east coast of Florida that prohibit fishing for and retention of snapper grouper species for an indefinite period with a 10-year re-evaluation by the Council.

miniatus grouper vermilion sea bass tile
(Source: www.zazzle.com)

The Council will review the configuration and size of the area within 3 years of publication of the Final Rule (March 26, 2004). The amendment addressed overfishing for snowy grouper, golden tile fish, black sea bass and vermilion snapper.

The amendment also allowed for a moderate increase in the harvest of red porgy as stock continues to rebuild. A Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEI) for Amendment 15B was developed in April 2008 to address the availability of additional economic information.

The Amendment includes actions to: 1) prohibit sale the sale of bag-limit caught snapper grouper species, 2) reduce the effects of incidental hooking on sea turtles and small tooth saw fish, 3) change the commercial permit renewal period and transferability requirements, 4) implement a plan to monitor and address by catch, and 5) establish management reference points, such as May and Of for golden tile fish. Amendment 15B also established allocations between recreational and commercial fishermen for snowy grouper and red porgy.

NOTE: The amendment includes provisions to modify management measures for vermilion snapper as necessary by the Regional Administrator for NOAA Fisheries Service based on a Sedan stock assessment for vermilion snapper that was completed in late 2008. * The Council received a letter from NOAA Fisheries Service on March 25, 2009, stating Amendment 16 has been partially approved.

The Council approved Amendment 17A for submission to the Secretary of Commerce during their meeting in June 2010. The Final Rule was announced on December 3, 2010, extending the prohibition of red snapper in federal waters throughout the South Atlantic EEA effective immediately.

grouper fish florida species fishing snapper keys bass sea chart gag scamp panama reopens yellowfin hind yellowmouth catching rock floridakeystreasures
(Source: floridakeystreasures.com)

The implementation of an area closure extending off the coasts of southern Georgia and north/central east coast of Florida where fishing for all snapper grouper species would be prohibited to address high mortality associated with discards was delayed. The Council approved Regulatory Amendment 10 for submission to the Secretary of Commerce during its December 2010 meeting in order to eliminate the area closure based on updated stock assessment information for red snapper (see listing below).

Amendment 17A also includes a regulation requiring the use of non-stainless circle hooks north of 28 degrees N. latitude is effective March 3, 2011. Additional measures in the amendment include a reduction in the snowy grouper bag limit to one fish per vessel per trip; establishment of a combined ACL for gag, black grouper, and red grouper of 662,403 lbs (gutted weight) for the commercial fishery, and 648,663 lbs (gutted weight) for the recreational fishery; an allocation of 97% commercial and 3% recreational for the golden tile fish fishery based on landings' history; and establishment of accountability measures as necessary.

The amendment is based on updated stock assessment information for red snapper (Sedan 24) and was approved by the Secretary of Commerce in April 2011. The amendment eliminates a current restriction on the possession or harvest of some deepwater snapper grouper species in waters greater than 240 feet deep.

The Council will re-address measures to reduce by catch of speckled hind and Warsaw grouper in Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 3. The amendment meets the 2011 mandate deadline of the Magnuson-Stevens Act to establish Annual Catch Limits (Acts) and Accountability Measures (AM's) for species managed by the Council that are not undergoing overfishing.

The amendment addresses a number of species in the snapper grouper management complex, as well as dolphin (mahi-mahi), Yahoo, and golden crab. Acts for other species, including king and Spanish mackerel, cobra, and spiny lobster are being addressed in separate amendments.

The amendment also implemented or revised parameters such as Maximum Sustainable Yield (May), Minimum Stock Size Threshold (Most), Annual Catch Limits (Acts) and Accountability Measures (AM's) and specified allocations for the commercial and recreational sectors. Note: The current management measures, including a 4-month spawning season closure for shallow water grouper, may be sufficient to keep the recreational fishery below the proposed ACL.

Actions implemented through regulatory amendment 12 include: Adjust the Annual Catch Limit (ACL) and Optimum Yield (Of) for golden tile fish; specifying a commercial Annual Catch Target (ACT); and revise recreational Accountability Measures (AM's) for golden tile fish. Only golden tile fish fishermen who meet certain landings criteria and also have a valid Unlimited South Atlantic Snapper- Grouper Permit will receive an endorsement and be allowed to use longline gear to harvest golden tile fish; An appeals process for the golden tile fish endorsement program; Establishment of a procedure to allow transferability of golden tile fish endorsements; Allocation of 75% of the commercial annual catch limit to the longline sector and 25% to the hook-and-line sector; Modification of the golden tile fish trip limits to remove the 300 pound gutted weight trip limit when 75% of the commercial annual catch limit is caught; Establishment of a 500 pound gutted weight trip limit for those who do not qualify for a golden tile fish endorsement.

Regulatory Amendment 13 is necessary to avoid triggering accountability measures for these snapper- grouper species based on annual catch limits that were established by the Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit Amendment in April 2012, using recreational data under the Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey system. Regulatory Amendment 14 In Regulatory Amendment 14, the Council is considering actions to modify the fishing year for greater amber jack; revise the minimum size limit measurement for gray trigger fish; increase the minimum size limit for dogfish; modify the commercial and recreational fishing year for black sea bass ; adjust the commercial fishing season for vermilion snapper; modify the aggregate grouper bag limit; and revise the AM's for gag and vermilion snapper.

Regulatory Amendment 15 In Regulatory Amendment 15, the Council is considering actions to: Modify the existing specification of optimum yield and annual catch limit for yellowtail snapper in the South Atlantic; Modify existing regulations for yellowtail snapper in the South Atlantic; and -Modify the existing gag commercial annual catch limit and/or accountability measure for gag that requires a closure of all other shallow water groupers (black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock hind, grays by, Coney, yellow mouth grouper, and yellow fin grouper) in the South Atlantic when the gag commercial annual catch limit is met or projected to be met. The Council approved this amendment for submission to the Secretary of Commerce at the December 2012 meeting.

The goal of the action in Regulatory Amendment 16 is to minimize adverse socio-economic impacts to black sea bass pot endorsement holders while maintaining protection to whales in the South Atlantic region listed under the Endangered Species Act. An additional action was added in 2014 to address golden tile fish longline endorsement issues.

Amendment 27 This amendment assumes management of Nassau grouper in the Gulf of Mexico; modifies the crew size restriction for dual-permitted vessels (those with a Snapper Grouper Unlimited or 225-Pound Permit and a Charter/Head boat Permit for Snapper Grouper); considers modifications to the bag limit retention restriction for captain and crew of for-hire vessels; proposes changes to the existing snapper grouper framework procedure to allow for more timely adjustments to Acts; and modifies management measures for blue runner. The Council approved this amendment for submission to the Secretary of Commerce at their March 2013 meeting.

Amendment 28 (2013) Amendment 28 establishes (1) a process to determine if a red snapper fishing season will occur each year, which would include specification of the allowable harvest for both sectors and season length for the recreational sector; (2) an equation to determine the annual catch limit amount for red snapper for each sector; and (3) management measures if fishing for red snapper is allowed. During the December 2012 meeting, however, the Council chose to extract that action from CE-BA 3 and address it in a separate amendment.

Some Council members expressed concern that fishermen needed more time to learn about the implications of this proposed action and the capabilities of a VMS. Fishermen and the public in general associate VMS only with enforcement activities and are unaware of its data collection capabilities and other features.

At their June 2013 meeting, the Council voted to not submit the amendment for Secretarial review. Regulatory Amendment 18 Stock assessment updates for vermilion snapper and red porgy were conducted in 2012 and new ABCs were recommended as a result.

In addition, the amendment proposes the removal of the annual recreational closure for vermilion snapper. The Council approved this amendment for submission to the Secretary of Commerce at their March 2013 meeting.

Hence, at their March 2013 meeting, the Council requested development of Regulatory Amendment 19 to adjust the black sea bass harvest limits based on the results of the assessment. To minimize this risk, the amendment also proposed a closure to black sea bass pot gear from November 1 to April 30.

The annual prohibition on the use of black sea bass pots from November 1 through April 30 became effective October 23, 2013. At the September meeting, Council removed blue line tile fish; included a 3-year review provision for the ORCS species; and requested to add actions related to gray trigger fish.

The Council reviewed the amendment at their June 2014 meeting and requested some changes to alternatives to address concerns about scamp grouper. The Workgroup comprised scientists with expertise in deepwater groupers and/or MPA's and commercial and recreational fishermen with extensive experience in the South Atlantic.

The MPA Expert Workgroup was convened again in February 4-6, 2013 in Charleston to provide further advice to the Council. In March 2013 the Council requested that staff review the Purpose and Need for this amendment and bring it back for discussion at the September 2013 meeting.

NOTE: At their June 2014 meeting, the Council decided to stop development of Regulatory Amendment 17 and focus instead of development of Amendment 36 based on recommendations from the Snapper Grouper AP and public input received through the Visioning Project. For these species, even small fluctuations in biomass due to natural conditions rather than fishing mortality may cause a stock to be classified as overfished.

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