From 1997-2005, our researchers collaborated with Florida State University's Institute for Fishery Resource Ecology (Dr. Chris Koenig and Dr. Felicia Coleman) to monitor the status and recovery of Goliath grouper. This Goliath grouper research program investigated juvenile and adult Jewish abundance, distribution and migration patterns; their age and growth; and their habitat utilization.
With the help of Don Maria we have tagged over 1,000 adult Jewish and have observed aggregations of Goliath grouper in both the Gulf of Mexico and more recently, the South Atlantic. Posters created by the Center of Marine Conservation help disseminate information about our project and its requirements, highlighting our tagging study and the morphology of Goliath grouper.
Given that these groupers were afforded protected status, researchers worked to utilize and develop novel non-lethal techniques to procure and analyze biological samples for life history information. Researchers have also determined that soft dorsal rays hold promise for aging older fish (Marie et al., 2008).
These casualties, resulting from red tide, gave our biologists a unique opportunity to collect a multitude of biological samples, without having to sacrifice healthy animals. From these decomposing carcasses, biologists were able to record length for use in an age/length relationship, and were able to extract monoliths and remove dorsal spines and rays for comparison of hard parts in age and growth analysis.
Tissue samples were also removed and sent to the Florida Marine Research Institute, so they could evaluate the level of red tide toxin. The sampling trip gave these biologists an opportunity to educate the curious beach goers about red tide and Goliath grouper (a few of which had been misidentified as baby manatees).
Attempts to evaluate the data needed to assess the status of these depleted stocks and develop rebuilding plans present unique challenges. In 2010, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and NOAA Fisheries convened a benchmark Goliath grouper assessment for the continental U.S. population.
Not known from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, nor Asian mainland (Heemskerk and Randall 1993). Non indigenous Occurrences : Introduced into marine waters off Kauai and Oahu, Hawaii (Mailed 1984).
Failed to establish off the marine waters of Oahu (Muddy 2005). Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records.
The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Epimetheus Terra are found here. Means of Introduction: 1631 fish were imported from the Moore in 1956 and were subsequently stocked (Mailed 1984).
It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made. Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephrine).
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.
Friendly, helpful and informative anglers really make you feel like part of their online fishing community! HABITAT: Both juveniles and adults frequent inshore holes and ledges, often on deeper grass flats.
DESCRIPTION: Gray or light brown with wavy markings on the side that generally do not form boxes or circles. Color deepens to dark brown shortly after removal from water.
GAME QUALITIES: An aggressive striker and hard fighter at all depths. Offshore bottom fishermen tend toward stout rods with 50- and 80-pound-test lines, but such grouper digging” rigs are strictly necessary only in very deep water.
Many anglers catch lots of Gags on spinning and plug tackle. Hard-lure casters use Deadhead jigs, mostly, while rollers rely on large deep-diving plugs.
Live bait fish of various sorts are the best natural offerings-try Pilchards, Pinkish, Grunts or Sand Perch (Squirrel fish). Dead small fish and large cut baits also work well.
BLACK GROUPER (Mycteroperca Monaco) OTHER NAMES: Monaco Ararat Again RANGE : Sometimes encountered in the deep Gulf and upper Atlantic, but common only in South Florida, the Keys and the Bahamas. HABITAT: Blacks of many sizes are commonly found around the edges of coral reefs, from about 30 feet of water out to the deepest drop offs.
Even big fish, however, may roam to much shallower patch reefs, especially in cooler seasons. SIZE: The largest of our Mycteroperca groupers, the Black frequently exceeds 50 pounds in weight and can top 100.
TACKLE AND BAITS: For all-around work, ocean gear with lines of 30-pound test or higher gets the call. One key besides a huge helping of luck is to hook the fish while drifting, instead of at anchor.
The drift of the boat adds to the power of the tackle and just might help drag the big fish far enough away from his rocky “hole” that he cannot get back. Pinkish and Pilchards are good too, as are Mullet heads and other large cut baits.
Best casting lures are Deadhead jigs, weighing from 1-4 ounces, depending on depth. Trolling over the reefs with rigged, swimming Mullet, feather-and-strip combos, and large plugs also takes many.
DESCRIPTION: Shows various colors, including two major phases, one of which would make it difficult to tell from the Black Grouper were it not for the bright yellow trim of the pectoral fins. SCAMP (Mycteroperca final) OTHER NAMES: Brown Grouper, Broom tail Grouper, Amadeo RANGE : Most plentiful along the Gulf Coast and roughly the upper half of the Florida Atlantic Coast.
Not common in South Florida and the Bahamas, where it is largely replaced by the similar Yellow mouth Grouper (next). HABITAT: Sometimes fairly close to shore, but generally sticks to deep reefs and ledges offshore.
Elongated rays of the caudal fin give the broom tail appearance. GAME QUALITIES: Outstanding on light tackle, but most are overpowered by heavy gear.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Sheer depth-typical of many Panhandle bottom-fishing drops-may necessitate rods and lines stout enough to handle very heavy sinkers. Deadhead jigs weighing 3/4 of an ounce to 11/2 ounces get lots of strikes with light gear-and if the bare jig isn't producing, it can be tipped with a strip of cut bait, or a whole small bait fish, and used as a bottom fishing rig.
Large diving plugs draw strikes in fairly shallow water-to about 50 feet. YELLOWMOUTH GROUPER (Mycteroperca interstitial is) OTHER NAMES: Salmon Rock fish RANGE : Most common in the Bahamas but found in South Florida, especially the Keys, and on Gulf reefs.
HABITAT: Occasionally on shallow patches, but more on deeper reefs to 120 feet or so near the edge of blue water. DESCRIPTION: Almost a ringer for the Scamp, except that the inside and corners of the mouth are yellow.
GAME QUALITIES: A tough fighter on tackle of reasonable size. TIGER GROUPER (Mycteroperca Tigris) OTHER NAMES: Monaco NATO RANGE : More common in the Bahamas, but seen fairly often in the Keys.
DESCRIPTION: Dark markings against a dusty gray background form vivid oblique stripes on the upper sides. TACKLE AND BAITS: Heavy spinning and bait casting outfits, along with light boat rods and lines up to 20- or 30-pound test.
Tigers will take a variety of artificial, including jigs and trolling plugs. HABITAT: Juveniles to around 100 pounds frequent mangrove creeks and bays of Southwest Florida, especially the Ten A Thousand Islands and Everglades National Park.
Adults can be found at a variety of depths, from holes and channels of coastal waters out to offshore ledges and reefs; also around pilings of bridges and under deepwater docks and piers. Numerous black spots are usually present as well on head, sides and fins.
Adults have the same pattern but in more subdued shades of brown that are not so brilliantly contrasted. The tail is round, as are the posterior, dorsal, anal and pectoral fins.
FOOD VALUE: Small ones excellent and big ones darn good which was the main reason for their precipitous decline and total closure in Florida in the 1980s. Some very big ones have been caught on very light lines in shallow water after being coaxed away from obstructions, but the giant Jewish around deep wrecks defy the heaviest sporting tackle.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Bait casting, spinning and even fly tackle make acceptable matchups for the inshore fish, which will and often do hit the full range of lures and flies that are used by Shook casters. WARSAW GROUPER (Epimetheus nitrites) OTHER NAMES: Giant Grouper, Black Jewish, Garuda Neurite RANGE : All Florida coasts, Atlantic and Gulf, but not reported from the Bahamas.
Party boats working offshore waters of the state's upper half both Gulf and Atlantic seem to bring in Warsaw's more often than elsewhere. Large specimens (which most are) can be somewhat coarse unless the fillets are cut into thin steaks for frying or baking.
GAME QUALITIES: Great strength is the hallmark of the Warsaw's fighting arsenal, and the angler who gets one on a manual rod and reel will know he's been in a tug-of-war. TACKLE AND BAITS: Only the heaviest rods, large reels and lines testing 80 pounds or more are really adequate.
Catches on lighter tackle are opportunistic and rare, and usually of the smaller specimens. Fairly large whole fish, or halved bonito and other hefty cut baits are all productive whenever they can be dropped to within gulping range of a Warsaw.
RED GROUPER (Epimetheus Mario) OTHER NAMES: Hero, China De Vivero RANGE : Common throughout Florida; also present in the Bahamas and common in some areas. HABITAT: Widely distributed from close inshore in many areas of Florida to ledges and wrecks in up to 300 or so feet of water.
DESCRIPTION: Overall light or rusty red with whitish spots and large blotches. No black mark on caudal peduncle fleshy area between tail and posterior dorsal fin.
Although Reds will “hole up” like other Groupers, many are hooked on light and fairly light tackle in areas where cover is well scattered, and this gives them the chance to demonstrate their toughness to best advantage. They are ready strikers on Deadhead jigs, fished with light tackle.
HABITAT: Prefers coral reefs, and probably does not roam into water much deeper than 120 feet or so. In the Islands, small specimens are common over inshore patches, and also in creeks and channels.
DESCRIPTION: Looks much like the Red Grouper in shape and pattern, although the basic coloration tends more to brown or gray than reddish. FOOD VALUE: Small ones are excellent; fish over 10 pounds are almost as good, but harvest is currently prohibited in Florida.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Most are caught by potluck reef or creek fishermen on light ocean gear or stout bait casting and spinning outfits-all using lines of 12-20 pounds. Cut fish, conch or squid all make good baits, and Nassau's will also strike jigs, spoons and underwater or surface plugs.
Bigger fish on rough coral reefs require heavy tackle for bottom-fishing, and can also be caught by trolling with feather-and-strip baits or with large swimming plugs. RED HIND (Epimetheus Gustavus) OTHER NAMES: Strawberry, Sandwich Grouper, Cabrillo, Sofia RANGE : Very plentiful on Bahamas reefs in 40-80 feet.
Caudal, anal and posterior dorsal fins edged in black. TACKLE AND BAITS: In some reef areas of the Bahamas, Red Hinds can be caught to the point of boredom by drifting and bouncing the bottom with jigs.
ROCK HIND (Epimetheus ascensions) OTHER NAMES: Rock Cod, Cabre Morey, Hero Cabrillo RANGE : Widespread in Florida and the Bahamas, often in company with the Red Hind, but usually less plentiful in southern portions of the range. DESCRIPTION: The Rock Hind is mostly brown or tan in background color.
Has spots similar to those of the Red Hind, but also is marked by large, dark blotches on the upper sides usually two, but often more. SIZE: About the same as the Red Hind, but maximum may be slightly larger to 8 or 9 pounds.
CONEY (Epimetheus Julius) OTHER NAMES: Golden Coney, Golden Grouper, Cultivar, Crunch RANGE : South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean. DESCRIPTION: A very small Grouper, the Coney is seen in various color phases, including vivid yellow, gold-and-brown, red-and-brown.
Grassy (Epimetheus orientates) OTHER NAMES: Enable, Cuba Cabrillo RANGE : South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean. GAME QUALITIES: Aggressive striker, sometimes on surprisingly large lures, but too small to put up a fight.
TACKLE AND BAITS: Like the Coney, a common reef catch when small hooks are used. SPECKLED HIND (Epimetheus drummondhayi) OTHER NAMES: Kitty Mitchell, Calico GrouperRANGE : Both coasts of Florida, but most often caught in the Keys and this is probably because of heavy fishing around well-known seamounts or “humps,” particularly off the Keys towns of Marathon and Islamabad.
DESCRIPTION: Generally dark gray or reddish brown, with a profusion of small, creamy or white spots on sides, gill covers and fins. It is theorized that the great pressures under which they live helps make the flesh more succulent.
GAME QUALITIES: Seldom caught on sporting gear, but when they are especially if that gear is a reasonably light outfit, the fight begins strong but diminishes fast as the fish is brought higher in the water column. MARBLED GROUPER (Epimetheus INERIS) RANGE : Bahamas and South Florida.
DESCRIPTION: Dark brown or charcoal with numerous white spots. TACKLE AND BAITS: Power reels and cut bait fish or squid.
DESCRIPTION: Dark gray or brown with scattered whitish spots. YELLOWED GE GROUPER (Epimetheus flavolimbatus) OTHER NAMES: Deepwater, Yellow fin, GrouperRANGE : All Florida and the Bahamas.
Dorsal, pectoral and anal fins have yellow outer edges. Likes rocky areas, wrecks, channels with hard bottom, jetties, deep holes in grass flats.
DESCRIPTION: Color is generally black or charcoal, with blue highlights and tiny white spots or stripes on dorsal fin. The flesh is mild and white but, sadly, most Sea Bass caught these days are too small to be worthwhile.
The occasional outsize specimen should be filleted and skinned, but take care when doing so, because gill covers are sharp and so are the spines. GAME QUALITIES: A hard and willing striker on both natural baits and a variety of artificial lures.
Sea Bass greedily hit live or dead shrimp and all sorts of cut baits, along with live small bait fish and artificial jigs and underwater plugs. SAND PERCH (Di plectrum Formosa) OTHER NAMES: Coral Snapper, Squirrel fish, Solo RANGE : Both coasts of Florida, north to south.
HABITAT: Sand Perch are found from bays and shorelines to well offshore over a variety of bottoms. They seem to prefer rather open bottom with patches of grass or scattered rock, and they also like deep channels.
DESCRIPTION: Slender, cylindrical shape, with large mouth and wide tail. Color is tan with brown vertical bars or blotches, and full-length horizontal lines of blue and orange.
GAME QUALITIES: Very aggressive, Sand Perch often hit baits and lures meant for much larger fish. Small jigs, either plain or tipped with a piece of shrimp or cut bait, will produce the most, but any sort of bottom rig and natural bait will do the job.
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Performed (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy bassets) > Epinephrine Etymology: Epimetheus:Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 4 – 300 m (Ref.
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to Natal, South Africa and eastward to the western Pacific, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Records from Persian Gulf are apparently identifications of Epimetheus polymers.
Not verified from the Comoros, continental shelf between Oman and Cambodia, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia. 89707); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/annexed; (Ref.
Live color whitish, with small dark brown spots on head, body, and fins except centrally on head, thorax, and lower abdomen. Can assume a transient color phase of 3-4 rows of very large round dark spots on top of the small-spot pattern.
04787); characterized further by having steroid body scales, except cyclone scales on nape, thorax, parts of ventral abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; truncate to slightly marginate caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.7-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); interorbital slightly convex; properly angle rounded, 4-7 enlarged Serra at angle below a slight notch; upper edge of pendulum straight; posterior nostril not noticeably larger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches about to vertical at rear edge of eye; scaly maxilla, low step on posterior part of ventral edge; 2-4 rows of teeth in mid lateral part of lower jaw, inner ones about twice the size of outer teeth (Ref.
Found over a wide range of habitats like seagrass beds and outer reef slopes (Ref. Feed on small fishes and crustaceans (mainly stomatopods and crabs).
Mature individuals form spawning aggregations (Ref. E. Chlorostigma is closely related and very similar to E. polymers and E. Gabrielle which seem to replace it in the northwestern Indian Ocean.
Sex change occurs at length of 46.4 cm TL and 3 years of age (Ref. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date. Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00646 – 0.01622), b=3.03 (2.90 – 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LCR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 120179): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years (K=0.17-0.19; tax=29; TM=2-3; FEC = 1,014,818).
Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.
In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.
Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Synonyms and Other Names: Serra nus master Valentines in Cuvier & Valentines 1828, Cephalopods Gustavus (Bloch 1790); blue spotted grouper, peacock grouper, peacock rock cod, ROI Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govIdentification: Previous reports (e.g., Mailed 1984) refer to this species as Cephalopods Gustavus.
Small blue Bocelli ringed in black cover the body. Five to six pale vertical bars are often apparent posterior to the pectoral fins and a large white patch occurs on the breast.
Dorsal, anal and caudal fins generally with a narrow white band along their posterior margins. The blue spotted hind has a similar color pattern, with a reddish-brown background and blue Bocelli covering the body.
Similar species in Florida: Coney (Cephalopods vulva) has two black spots on lower lip and two black spots at base of canal fin. Grays by (C. orientates) has red spots on the body and a rounded caudal fin.
Red hind (Epimetheus Gustavus) has dark margins on rear dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. NativeRange : This common and widely-distributed grouper ranges from the Red Sea to South Africa and east to French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands group, including northern Australia, Lord Howe Island and southern Japan (Heemskerk and Randall 1993; Carpenter and Nail 1999).
Early reports (from Valentines in 1828 and Quo & Gamma rd in 1824) listed the species from Hawaii; however, these reports are considered erroneous (see Randall and Ben-Tuvia 1983; Randall and Heemskerk 1991; Muddy 2005). Non indigenous Occurrences : In Hawaii, 571 small individuals from Moore (Society Islands) were released off the islands of Oahu and Hawaii in 1956 (Randall 1987).
These fish became established in the Hawaiian Islands and entered the commercial and sport fisheries by the early 1970s (Randall and Alabama 1972). The species is present in the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historic Park (Ailment 1999).
In Florida, the peacock hind has been seen off Boca Raton in 2004 (T. Jackson, peers. ), Pompano Beach in 2005 (REEF 2008) and Key West in 2006 (T. Jackson, peers.
Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cephalopods Argus are found here.
Ecology: This common grouper occurs on coral reefs over a depth range of 1-40 m, typically less than 10 m (Shrivel and Michelson 1989b; Heemskerk and Randall 1993). The species is territorial, and partitions its habitat into large (up to 2000 m 2) territories occupied by a male and up to 12 females and sub-territories, each inhabited by a single female (Shrivel and Michelson 1989b, 1991).
Like many groupers, the peacock hind is a protogynous hermaphrodite, and switches from a female to a male during its lifespan. Females reach sexual maturity at 1.2 years (20.0 cm TL).
Sex change, when females transition into functional males, occurs around 11.2 years (39.9 cm TL) (Stemmed et al. 2016). The species feeds primarily at night in Madagascar (Harmelin-Viven and Bourbon 1976), but feeds during the early morning and late afternoon in the Red Sea (Shrivel and Michelson 1989a,b).
The diet is composed mainly of fishes (generally over 80%), but also includes some invertebrates (Randall and Brock 1960; Harmelin-Viven and Bourbon 1976; Shrivel & Michelson 1989a). The peacock hind is able to consume surprisingly large prey items; one report documented that a 231 mm peacock hind consumed a 203 mm prey fish (Randall and Brock 1960).
The peacock hind is an important food-fish throughout the Indolent Pacific region; however, due to its carnivorous nature, it has been blamed for numerous cases of Ciguatera poisoning in both the native and introduced ranges (Randall 1987; Heemskerk and Randall 1993). A study in Hawaii by Dairying and Camera (2009), showed that 18.2% of C. Argus specimens collected contained ciguatoxin in concentrations potentially harmful to humans.
Means of Introduction: Intentionally stocked as a food/sport fish in Hawaii'i. Status: Established in Hawaii (Randall and Alabama 1972) as far north as Ni'IAU (Muddy 2005).
Impact of Introduction: In Hawaii'i this species has spread throughout the main islands and has become the dominant large-bodied predator on reefs. A diet study by Dairying et al. (2009) showed that 98% of the diet was composed of fish and that peacock hind consumed many kinds of fish.
Ciguatera in the introduced fish Cephalopods Argus (Serranidae) in Hawaii'i and implications for fishery management. Diet composition and prey selection of the introduced grouper species peacock hind (Cephalopods Argus) in Hawaii.
Courtship and spawning behavior of the pygmy grouper, Cephalopholisspiloparaea (Serranidae: Epinephrine), with notes on C. Argus and C. rode. Feeding behavior of some carnivorous fishes (Serranidae and Scorpaenidae) from Tulane (Madagascar).
Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephrine). A review of the groupers (Pisces: Serranidae: Epinephrine) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species of Cephalopods.
Observations on the ecology of epinephrine and Jutland fishes of the Society Islands, with emphasis on food habits. Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Performed: Serranidae: Epinephrine), with descriptions of five new species.
Report on the introduction of serrated and Jutland fishes from French Polynesia to the Hawaiian Islands. Exotic species sighting programs and volunteer database.
World Wide Web electronic publication. Reproductive life history of the introduced peacock grouper Cephalopods Argus in Hawaii.
Food habits and prey selection of three species of groupers from the genus Cephalopods (Serranidae: Teleostean). Habitat partitioning between species of the genus Cephalopods (Pisces: Serranidae) across the fringing reef of the Gulf of Arab (Red Sea).
Territoriality and associated behavior in three species of the genus Cephalopods (Pisces: Serranidae) in the Gulf of Arab (Red Sea). Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System.
Paper presented at the 129th Annual Meeting of The American Fisheries Society, Charlotte, North Carolina, September 1, 1999 (unpublished manuscript). The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Performed (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy bassets) > Epinephrine Etymology: Epimetheus:Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 – 100 m (Ref.
Indolent Pacific: Red Sea south to at least Durban, South Africa and eastward to Paley and Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Bravura Sea (Ref. Recently reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel (Ref.
Interorbital width 5.0-6.2 in HL; properly with enlarged Serra at angle and a broad shallow notch just above angle; upper edge of pendulum straight or somewhat convex; maxilla reaches to or slightly past a vertical at rear edge of eye; upper jaw length 17-20% of SL; mid lateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of subequal teeth; gill makers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-17; pyloric ceca 50-60; lateral body scales rough, with minute auxiliary scales (body scales steroid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cyclone scales); lateral-line scales 58-65; lateral-line tubes of anterior scales branched in adults. Color: head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish centrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body, and median fins; body with 5 faint, irregular, oblique, dark bars which bifurcate centrally (irregular H-shaped bars); back with 3-4 blackish saddles; orange spots become poorly defined and darker with growth (Ref.
Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref.
Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref.
Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for agriculture (Ref.
Caught with hook-and-line, traps, trawls, and lift nets. Common and expensive in markets of the region; sold fresh and kept alive at restaurants in Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan Province of China) (Ref.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date.
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01025 – 0.01347), b=3.04 (3.01 – 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LCR estimates for this species (Ref. 69278): 4.0 ±0.0 SE; Based on diet studies.
Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies. 120179): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years (K=0.17; TM=2-3; tax=22; FEC=43,618).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 – 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment. This fish is an attack predator with a number of hunting techniques: lying to wait in coral, swimming in mid water, following other predators like eels and octopus and catching their prey if originally missed, and hiding within schools of fish and darting out at unsuspecting prey.
Habitat: C. Argus can be found on shallow exposed reefs in warm tropical waters. It is a protogynous hermaphrodite, meaning it begins life as a female and changes to a male as it matures.
It is treatable in humans, but the concern is that ciguatoxin can move up the food chain via bio amplification and spread to other species. Reading Time: 7minutesGroupers are some of Florida’s most iconic fish species.
From monster Goliath's to delicious Scamps, these big bottom-dwellers are a favorite on most Floridian fishing trips. In this article, you can learn all about the different types of Grouper in Florida.
The average catch in Florida is around half that length, weighing between 5 and 20 pounds. Black Grouper live around rocky bottoms and reefs on both sides of the Sunshine State.
They spend their summers spawning in much shallower seas, though, as little as 30 feet deep. Commonly known as “Grey Grouper,” these guys are a staple of reef fishing trips around the Gulf and up the Atlantic.
They don’t grow as big as Black Grouper, usually maxing out somewhere around 50 pounds. However, younger Gags can be found in estuaries and even seagrass beds, so don’t be surprised if you hook one while you’re on the hunt for Redfish and other inshore species.
Bigger fish hunt around muddy and rocky coastal waters. Young Goliath's will head right into estuaries and look for food around oyster bars.
Their huge size and fearless curiosity made them an easy target, and they were overfished almost to extinction in the late 20th century. Luckily, Goliath Grouper are strictly protected these days, and you can only fish for them on a catch-and-release basis.
From teaming up with other predators to catch their dinner to reportedly fanning bait out of traps for an easy snack, they’re far brighter than most people give them credit for. Sadly, this intelligence comes with the same natural curiosity that put Goliath Grouper in hot water.
If you come across one, count yourself lucky for the chance to meet it and make sure it swims off unharmed. Nothing says “reef fishing in Florida” like a boastful of big, tasty Red Grouper.
These deep-water hunters are the reason people bother to go offshore when there are so many fish in the shallows. The average Red Grouper weighs somewhere in the 5–10 lb range, and anything over 2 feet long is a rare catch.
They live around rocky bottom up to 1,000 feet down, so you may have to travel 20 miles or more to get to them. According to most people who have caught them, Scamp are the tastiest fish in the family.
You won’t come across them in much less than 100 feet of water, and you can easily find them in three or four times that depth. They also grow much bigger than Scamp, meaning you’re in for a real feast if you catch one.
If you’re set on landing a “Snowier,” get ready for a long ride. NOAA has declared Speckled Hind a Species of Concern, mainly because they have so little data on them.
If Goliath Grouper are the kings of the shallows, these guys dominate the deep. Add in the fact that they live several hundred feet down, where all fish taste great, and they become the dream catch of many deep dropping enthusiasts.
Their dappled, red body and bright yellow fins provide camouflage around the deep, rocky structure that they hunt around. Yellow fin’s scientific name, Mycteroperca Vanessa, roughly translates to “Poisonous Grouper.” This is because they tend to have very high levels of ciguatoxin.
They’re slightly smaller than Scamp on average, but many anglers say that they taste just as good. Yellow mouth Grouper are uncommon in the Gulf of Mexico, but you can bag yourself a colorful feast all along Florida’s Atlantic Coast.