The video, shot by his wife using a GoPro 3, shows the hefty fish as he nips at the man's flipper, tearing it off, and then goes straight for his catch with its powerful jaw. But, even if the diver wasn't familiar with that specific size of this type of fish, Goliath groupers have been known to roam western Atlantic waters near Florida.
However, in terms of actual number of attacks on divers, the Goliath grouper gives sharks a run for their money. In fact, this fish has been known to steal food from aggressive sharks feeding on prey on the ocean bottom.
Although the attack may be defensive, this massive fish has numerous sharp teeth that can cause significant harm to an unwitting diver or any other organism entering its home range. It will typically reach the size of a large motorcycle (400 to 800 pounds) and can attain lengths of over 8 feet.
This monster is usually found in relatively shallow water down to 150 feet and around rock outcroppings and coral reef crevices on the continental shelf. For example, The New York Times reported in 1895 that a fisherman caught a 1,500-pound Goliath grouper in the Gulf of Mexico.
The second author's older brother worked as a commercial deep sea diver on oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. A Goliath grouper aggressively chased several divers from around one oil rig until the brother finally had to go down and show the fish that humans are 'the boss' by banging on it with a huge 20-pound box wrench.
It is recognized as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This giant attacking fish may not be as deadly as sometimes portrayed, but they are definitely a monster of the deep which a diver must approach with caution.
Experienced divers may consider themselves fearless towards anything in the water, but when faced with a monster Goliath grouper, their diving skill and nerve may be tested. The Goliath grouper has survived millions of years by defending its own, even if this means aggressively taking on humans.
Man-eater is a colloquial term for an individual animal that preys on humans as a pattern of hunting behavior. This does not include the scavenging of corpses, a single attack born of opportunity or desperate hunger, or the incidental eating of a human that the animal has killed in self-defense.
Most reported cases of man-eaters have involved lions, tigers, leopards, and large crocodiles. However, they are not the only predators that will attack humans if given the chance; a wide variety of species have also been known to adopt humans as usual prey, including bears, Komodo dragons and hyenas.
The man-eater of Segue, a young man-eating male Bengal tiger who killed five people in the Nigeria Hills of Tamil Nadu state in South India. Tigers are recorded to have killed more people than any other big cat, and tigers have been responsible for more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal. Tigers killed 129 people in the Hungarians mangrove forest from 1969 to 1971.
Unlike leopards and lions, man-eating tigers rarely enter human habitations in order to acquire prey. The majority of victims are reportedly in the tiger's territory when the attack takes place.
Additionally, tiger attacks mostly occur during daylight hours, unlike those committed by leopards and lions. The Hungarians is home to approximately 600 royal Bengal tigers who before modern times used to “regularly kill fifty or sixty people a year”.
In 2008, a loss of habitat due to the Cyclone Side led to an increase in the number of attacks on humans in the Indian side of the Sunder bans, as tigers were crossing over to the Indian side from Bangladesh. A theory promoted to explain this suggests that since tigers drink fresh water, the salinity of the area waters serve as a destabilizing factor in the diet and life of tigers of Hungarians, keeping them in constant discomfort and making them extremely aggressive.
Man-eating lions have been recorded to actively enter human villages at night as well as during the day to acquire prey. This greater assertiveness usually makes man-eating lions easier to dispatch than tigers.
The incidents occurred near Serous National Park in Fiji District and in Hindi Province near the Mozambican border. While the expansion of villagers into bush country is one concern, the authors argue that conservation policy must mitigate the danger because, in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.
Cases in Hindi have been documented where lions seize humans from the center of substantial villages. In July 2018, a South African news website reported that three rhino poachers were mauled and eaten by lions at Shibuya Game Reserve in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Jim Corbett was noted to have stated that unlike tigers, which usually became man-eaters because of infirmity, leopards more commonly did so after scavenging on human corpses. In the area that Corbett knew well, dead people are usually cremated completely, but when there is a bad disease epidemic, the death rate outruns the supply of cremation pyre wood and people burn the body a little and throw it over the edge of the burning ghat.
In Asia, man-eating leopards usually attack at night, and have been reported to break down doors and thatched roofs in order to reach human prey. Both Corbett and Kenneth Anderson have written that hunting the man eating panther presented more challenges than any other animal.
In 2019 in India, an infant was stolen and decapitated by a leopard. The risk to humans would increase if there were fewer cabanas, which the jaguars mainly preyed on.
Attacks on people, livestock, and pets may occur when a puma habituates to humans or is in a condition of severe starvation. Attacks are most frequent during late spring and summer, when juvenile cougars leave their mothers and search for new territory.
Unlike other big cat man-eaters, cougars do not kill humans as a result of old age or food preference, but in defense of their territory. Such behavior has been documented in hunts by humans, where the cougar is flushed out by dogs which it either outruns or mauls some distance away.
The cultural practice of cannibalism has been observed in some societies across the world, but was never widespread and is now very rare. Two of the Wolves of Period, responsible for the deaths of 18 people in February 1766, on display at the château of Radar in Thinkers Contrasted to other carnivorous mammals known to attack humans for food, the frequency with which wolves have been recorded to kill people am rather low, indicating that, though potentially dangerous, wolves are among the least threatening for their size and predatory potential, except for the dog which poses lethal hazards for reasons other than predation.
In the rare cases in which man-eating wolf attacks occur, the majority of victims are children. Habituation is a known factor contributing to some man-eating wolf attacks which results from living close to human habitations, causing wolves to lose their fear of humans and consequently approach too closely, much like urban coyotes.
Attacks on humans by dingoes are rare, with only two recorded fatalities in Australia. The most famous record of a dingo attack was the disappearance of nine-week-old Azania Chamberlain.
Her parents reported that they both saw a dingo taking Azania out of their tent when she and her family were out on a camping trip to Uluru. In 2019 in Australia, a father saved his 14-month-old infant from a dingo which had dragged it away.
Although dogs have many of the characteristics of bears and Big Cats known to be man-eaters, they are unlikely to act as man-eaters themselves. More often humans can be bitten to death by packs of stray dogs, but not eaten.
Polar bears, particularly young and undernourished ones will hunt people for food. Although bears rarely attack humans, bear attacks often cause devastating injuries due to the size and immense strength of the giant land and shoreline carnivores.
As with dogs, predatory intent is not necessary; territorial disputes and protection of cubs can result in death by bear attack. In July 2008, dozens of starving brown bears killed two geologists working at a salmon hatchery in Kamchatka.
After the partially eaten remains of the two workers were discovered, authorities responded by dispatching hunters to cull or disperse the bears. Unlike female bears, motivated to attack humans to protect cubs, male black bears actually prey on humans, viewing them as a potential food source.
Brown bears seldom attack humans on sight, and usually avoid people. They are, however, unpredictable in temperament, and will attack if they are surprised or feel threatened.
In some areas of India and Burma, sloth bears are more feared than tigers, due to their unpredictable temperament. Nonetheless, both the spotted hyena and the smaller striped hyena are powerful predators quite capable of killing an adult human, and are known to attack people when food is scarce.
Like most predators, hyena attacks tend to target women, children, and infirm men, though both species can and do attack healthy adult males on occasion. Although not true carnivores, pigs are competent predators and can kill and eat helpless humans unable to escape them.
Numerous animal trials in the Middle Ages involved pigs accused of eating children. In 2019, a woman was attacked and killed by a herd of feral hogs in rural Texas.
Despite small individual size, rats in large numbers can kill helpless people by eating humans alive. The Nile crocodile is one of the species involved in the most unprovoked fatal attacks on humans.
Each year, hundreds of deadly attacks are attributed to the Nile crocodile within sub-Saharan Africa. Because many relatively healthy populations of Nile crocodiles occur in East Africa, their proximity to people living in poverty and/or without infrastructure has made it likely that the Nile crocodile is responsible for more attacks on humans than all other species combined.
In Australia crocodiles have also been responsible for several deaths in the tropical north of the country. All crocodile species are also dangerous to humans, but most do not actively prey on them.
Even so, there have been several notable instances of alligators opportunistically attacking humans, especially the careless, small children, and elderly. Unlike the far-more dangerous saltwater and Nile crocodiles, the majority of alligators avoid contact with humans if possible, especially if they have been hunted.
Only very few species of snakes are physically capable of swallowing an adult human. Although quite a few claims have been made about giant snakes swallowing adult humans, only a limited number have been confirmed.
In 2017 in Indonesia, an adult was discovered inside a 7-metre-long (23 ft) python, and on June 14, 2018, a 54-year-old woman named Wei Tina was eaten by a reticulated python, which had slithered into her garden at her home. Also, multiple cases are documented of medium-sized (3 m to 4 m ) captive Burmese pythons constricting and killing humans, including several nonintoxicated, healthy adult men, one of whom was a “student” zookeeper.
In addition, at least one Burmese python as small as 2.7 m (8.9 ft) constricted and killed an intoxicated adult man. In the Philippines, more than a quarter of Beta men (a modern forest-dwelling hunter-gatherer group) have reported surviving reticulated python predation attempts.
In South Africa in 2002, a 10-year-old boy was swallowed whole by a 6-metre-long (20 ft) African Rock Python, but cases like these are empirically observed and recorded, but not entirely confirmed unlike the cases mentioned above. Large Komodo dragons are the only known lizard species to occasionally attack and consume humans.
Despite their large size, attacks on people are often unsuccessful and the victims manage to escape with severe wounds. Some evidence supports the contention that the African crowned eagle occasionally views human children as prey, with a witness account of one attack (in which the victim, a seven-year-old boy, survived and the eagle was killed), and the discovery of part of a human child skull in a nest.
This would make it the only living bird known to prey on humans, although other birds such as ostriches and cassowaries have killed humans in self-defense and a lammergeier might have killed Aeschylus by accident. Various large raptors like golden eagles are reported attacking human beings, but its unclear if they intend to eat them or if they have ever been successful in killing one.
Sign warning swimmers of the danger of shark attacksContrary to popular belief, only a limited number of shark species are known to pose a serious threat to humans. The species that are most dangerous can be indiscriminate and will take any potential meal they happen to come across (as an oceanic white tip might eat a person floating in the water after a shipwreck), or may bite out of curiosity or mistaken identity (as with a great white shark attacking a human on a surfboard possibly because it resembles its favored prey, a seal).
Attacks by piranhas resulting in deaths have occurred in the Amazon basin. In 2011, a drunk 18-year-old man was attacked and killed in Rosario del Data, Bolivia.
In 2012, a five-year-old Brazilian girl was attacked and killed by a shoal of P. batterers. Some Brazilian rivers have warning signs about lethal piranhas.
“Dietary behavior of man-eating lions as revealed by dental microwave textures”. “Horror as lions eat 3 poachers at Shibuya Game Reserve”.
^ a b Noway, Ronald M; and Paradise, John L. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1983. P1090 ^ Corbett, Jim (1944).
Wild beasts; a study of the characters and habits of the elephant, lion, leopard, panther, jaguar, tiger, puma, wolf, and grizzly bear. ^ Time Magazine Canadian edition, Saving The Big Cats, issue August 23, 2004, p.43.
“Fatal attacks by American black bear on people: 1900–2009”. ^ “Lone, predatory black bears responsible for most human attacks”.
^ “Brampton inquest called for python ban 20 years ago”. ^ “Pet Owners Panic after African Python Kills 2 Canadian Children”.
^ “Komodo dragon bites elderly woman on Inca Island”. Birds of prey of Southern Africa: their identification and life histories.
David Phillip, Cape Town, South Africa. “A new species of giant marabou stork (Ave's: Ciconiiformes) from the Pleistocene of Liang BUA, Flores (Indonesia)”.
^ Jones, Washington; Rinderknecht, Andrés; Motto, Rafael; Blanco, R. Ernesto (2013). “Body Mass Estimations and Paleo biological Inferences on a New Species of Large Caracas (Ave's, Falconidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Uruguay”.
CS1 main: numeric names: authors list (link) ^ The 1992 Careless shark-diving expedition by Ron and Valerie Taylor. ^ “Home beads more Amos SER avocado POR piranhas Na Bolivia”.
^ “Medina é Atacama POR piranhas e more no Amazonas”. “Praia no Rio Paraguay TEM quasi um statue DE piranhas POR did em MT”.