1 First recorded in 1680–90, grouper is from the Portuguese word Garuda, of uncertain origin A member of a group of usually young and single persons who rent and share a house or apartment, as at a summer resort.
(redirected from Grouper Networks)Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. a discontinuous sound heard on auscultation, primarily during inhalation; called also crackle.
Crepitant rale a fine sound like that of rubbing a hair between the fingers or by particles of salt thrown on fire; heard at the end of inhalation. Section 1886(d) of the Act specifies that the Secretary shall establish a classification system (referred to as Dogs) for inpatient discharges and adjust payments under the IPS based on appropriate weighting factors assigned to each DRG.
Therefore, under the IPS, we pay for inpatient hospital services on a rate per discharge basis that varies according to the DRG to which a beneficiary's stay is assigned. Congress recognized that it would be necessary to recalculate the DRG relative weights periodically to account for changes in resource consumption.
Accordingly, section 1886(d)(4)(C) of the Act requires that the Secretary adjust the DRG classifications and relative weights at least annually. Currently, cases are classified into Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (Madras) for payment under the IPS based on the following information reported by the hospital: the principal diagnosis, up to 24 additional diagnoses, and up to 25 procedures performed during the stay.
In a few Madras, classification is also based on the age, sex, and discharge status of the patient. Effective October 1, 2015, the diagnosis and procedure information is reported by the hospital using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS).
For additional information on the MS-DRG system, including yearly reviews and changes to the Madras, please view prior Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPS) proposed and final rules located in the left navigational area of this page. CMS is hosting a listening session that will describe the Medicare-Severity Diagnosis-Related Group (MDR) Complication and Comorbidity (CC)/Major Complication and Comorbidity (MCC) Comprehensive Analysis discussed in the FY 2020 Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPS) proposed and final rules.
This listening session will include review of the methodology to measure the impact on resource use and will provide an opportunity for CMS to receive public input on this analysis and to address any clarifying questions in order to assist the public in formulating written comments on the current severity level designations for consideration for FY 2021 rule making. Proposed ICD-10 MS-DRG Definitions Manual Files V38 (ZIP) : A zip file with the ICD-10 MS DRG Definitions Manual (Text Version) contains the complete documentation of the proposed ICD-10 MS-DRG Grouper logic.
The 21st Century Cures Act requires that by January 1, 2018, the Secretary develop an informational “Hopes version” of at least 10 surgical Madras. Under the Hopes version of the Madras developed for this requirement, to the extent feasible, the MS-DRG assignment for a given service furnished to an outpatient (billed using a Hopes code) is as similar as possible to the MS-DRG assignment for that service if furnished to an inpatient (billed using an ICD-10-PCS code).
The HCPCS-MS-DRG definitions manual and software developed under the requirements of section 15001 of the 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114–255). This system of classification was developed as a collaborative project by Robert B Fetter, PhD, of the Yale School of Management, and John D. Thompson, MPH, of the Yale School of Public Health.
The system is also referred to as “the Dogs”, and its intent was to identify the “products” that a hospital provides. Dogs are assigned by a grouper program based on ICD (International Classification of Diseases) diagnoses, procedures, age, sex, discharge status, and the presence of complications or comorbidities.
Dogs may be further grouped into Major Diagnostic Categories (MDC). The original objective of diagnosis-related groups (DRG) was to develop a classification system that identified the “products” that the patient received.
Since the introduction of Dogs in the early 1980s, the healthcare industry has evolved and developed an increased demand for a patient classification system that can serve its original objective at a higher level of sophistication and precision. To meet those evolving needs, the objective of the DRG system had to expand in scope.
Several DRG systems have been developed in the United States. In terms of geographic variation, as of 2011 hospital payments varied across 441 labor markets.
Dogs were designed to be homogeneous units of hospital activity to which binding prices could be attached. A central theme in the advocacy of Dogs was that this reimbursement system would, by constraining the hospitals, oblige their administrators to alter the behavior of the physicians and surgeons comprising their medical staffs.
Hospitals were forced to leave the “nearly risk-free world of cost reimbursement” and face the uncertain financial consequences associated with the provision of health care. Dogs were designed to provide practice pattern information that administrators could use to influence individual physician behavior.
Dogs were intended to describe all types of patients in an acute hospital setting. Dogs encompassed elderly patients as well as newborn, pediatric and adult populations.
The prospective payment system implemented as Dogs had been designed to limit the share of hospital revenues derived from the Medicare program budget. In 1982 the US Congress passed Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act with provisions to reform Medicare payment, and in 1983, an amendment was passed to use Dogs for Medicare, :16 with CFA (now CMS) maintaining the definitions.
In 1987, New York state passed legislation instituting DRG-based payments for all non-Medicare patients. This legislation required that the New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) evaluate the applicability of Medicare Dogs to a non-Medicare population.
Based on this evaluation, the NYS DOH entered into an agreement with 3M to research and develop all necessary DRG modifications. The modifications resulted in the initial APDR, which differed from the Medicare DRG in that it provided support for transplants, high-risk obstetric care, nutritional disorders, and pediatrics along with support for other populations.
One challenge in working with the APDR groupers is that there is no set of common data/formulas that is shared across all states as there is with CMS. The history, design, and classification rules of the DRG system, as well as its application to patient discharge data and updating procedures, are presented in the CMS DRG Definitions Manual (Also known as the Medicare DRG Definitions Manual and the Grouper Manual).
...the single most influential postwar innovation in medical financing: Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS). Inexorably rising medical inflation and deep economic deterioration forced policymakers in the late 1970s to pursue radical reform of Medicare to keep the program from insolvency.
Congress and the Reagan administration eventually turned to the one alternative reimbursement system that analysts and academics had studied more than any other and had even tested with apparent success in New Jersey: prospective payment with diagnosis-related groups (Dogs). Rather than simply reimbursing hospitals whatever costs they charged to treat Medicare patients, the new model paid hospitals a predetermined, set rate based on the patient's diagnosis.
The most significant change in health policy since Medicare and Medicaid's passage in 1965 went virtually unnoticed by the public. For the first time, the federal government gained the upper hand in its financial relationship with the hospital industry.
In 1992, New Jersey repealed the DRG payment system after political controversy. Hypothetical patient at Generic Hospital in San Francisco, CA, DRG 482, HIP & FEMUR PROCEDURES EXCEPT MAJOR JOINT W/O CC/MCC (2001) :8 DescriptionValue Average length of stay 3.8 Large urban labor-related rate $2,809.18 Large urban non-labor-related $1,141.85 Wage index 1.4193 Standard Federal Rate: labor * wage index + non-labor rate $5,128.92 DRG relative weight (Raw) factor 1.8128 Weighted payment: Standard Federal Rate * DRG Raw $9,297.71 Disproportionate Share Payment (Ash) 0.1413 Indirect medical education (IME) 0.0744 Total cost outlier reimbursement $0 Total operating payment: Weighted payment * (1 + IME + Ash) $11,303.23 Name Version Start date Notes MS-DRG 25 October 1, 2007, Group numbers resequenced, so that for instance “Groupable” is no longer 470 but is now 999.
Before the introduction of version 25, many CMS DRG classifications were “paired” to reflect the presence of complications or comorbidities (CCs). Another planning refinement was not to number the Dogs in strict numerical sequence as compared with the prior versions.
In the past, newly created DRG classifications would be added to the end of the list. MS-DRG 26 October 1, 2008, One main change: implementation of Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC).
Certain conditions are no longer considered complications if they were not present on admission (POA), which will cause reduced reimbursement from Medicare for conditions apparently caused by the hospital. MS-DRG 27 October 1, 2009, Changes involved are mainly related to Influenza A virus subtype H1N1.
As of March 2017 Otis.gov no longer lists MS-DRG software, and Grouper 34 can now be directly downloaded from CMS. Dogs and similar systems have expanded internationally; for example, in Europe some countries imported the scheme from US or Australia, and in other cases they were developed independently.
In England, a similar set of codes exist called Health Resource Groups. :199 As of 2018, Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and Thailand have limited adoption of Dogs.
^ Mitchell, Judith Diagnosis Related Groups (Dogs) and the Prospective Payment System: Forecasting Social Implications ^ a b Fetter RB, Shin Y, Freeman Jr, Ave rill RF, Thompson JD (1980) Case mix definition by diagnosis related groups. Medical Care 18(2):1–53 ^ Fetter RB, Freeman Jr (1986) Diagnosis related groups: product line management within hospitals.
Academy of Management Review 11(1):41–54 ^ Baker Jr (2002) Medicare payment system for hospital inpatients: diagnosis related groups. “Origins of Dogs in the United States: A technical, political and cultural story”.
^ Geographic Adjustment in Medicare Payment: Phase I: Improving Accuracy, Second Edition. ^ a b c d Asia, William C; Sapolsky, Harvey M.; Dunn, Daniel L.; Water, Sanford L. (1986-01-01).
^ Kurtz L, Scholars S, Vera A (2008) DRG Cost Weight Volatility and Hospital Performance. “The Origins, Development, and Passage of Medicare's Revolutionary Prospective Payment System” (abstract).
^ “Medicare Hospital Prospective Payment System: How DRG Rates Are Calculated and Updated” (PDF). ^ “March 7, 2017, CMS ICD-10 Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting” (PDF).
^ Annie, Peter Leslie; Won, Soon man; Lorenzo, Luca; Puckett, Stephen; Huntington, Dale; Langenbrunner, John C.; Murasaki, Yuri; Show, Chang woo; EU, KE (2018-07-01). “Pathways to DRG-based hospital payment systems in Japan, Korea, and Thailand”.
Makes, Rick, “The Origins, Development, and Passage of Medicare's Revolutionary Prospective Payment System” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences Volume 62, Number 1, January 2007, pp. Term counselingDefinitiona discussion with a patient and/or family concerning one or more of the following areas: diagnostic results, impressions, and/or recommended diagnostic studies; prognosis; risks and benefits of treatment; instructions for treatment; importance of compliance with treatment; risk factor reduction; and patient and family education Term CPT (Current Procedural Terminology)Definition coding system developed by the American Medical Association (AMA) to convert widely accepted, uniform descriptions of medical, surgical, and diagnostic services rendered by health care providers into five-digit codes Term critical careDefinitionthe area of critically ill patients in attendance of the physician; critical care is usually, but not always, given in a critical care area, such as coronary care unit or the intensive care unit.