In 2018, NPR ranked this as the #67 greatest song by a female or nonbinary artist in the 21st century, saying: Too quiet to demand attention, a tide-pool chorus pushes her diaphanous murmur and folk strumming into the realm of dream-pop, with a hook that laid the groundwork for a career at the intersection of accessible songwriting and avant-garde production.
Globe-trotting DJ and producer Andes Trentemøller seems to agree, and so a brand-new compilation has been put together that explores some Danish maverick's favorite songs for those special, intimate moments that exist purely between sound and listener, with no interruptions. Denmark's musical lineage is a rich one, and Trentemøller takes inspiration from the transient, constant life of Copenhagen's harbor to highlight some of the greatest moments from his home country's talents, as well as many more international artists of course.
Full of magical melodies, inspiring lyrics, haunting musical sequences and openly honest emotions, this collection ranges from wonderful singer-songwriter visions such as Emiliano Touring's serene “Lifesaver,” to swathing synths capes like Suicide's “Charge,” to low-slung electronic escapades such as Muscle head's freaky “Phosphorescence.” There's a wealth of fantastic music on offer, not to mention some inspiring combinations of unlikely tracks and rare outtakes.
Grouper : Headwater /I'd Rather Be SleepingThis haunting opening from Oregon's Liz Harris aka Grouper sets the tone for the first part of the mix, combining beautiful, mysterious vocals with spacious, drifting guitar tones. The Brian Jones town Massacre: Genome Mid-'90s psychedelia from the sunny streets of San Francisco, blending lazy, sultry vocals with a lo-fi indie soundtrack that melts '60s influences and '90s chilled-hedonism together perfectly.
The Marionettes: Any, Walk With Me (NIC End Remix) The first purely electronic groove to be introduced in the mix, and a marker for things to come, this slowed down neo-electro jam is NIC End of Atari Teenage Riot's interpretation of The Marionettes' classic. The Hypothetical Prophets (Provoke): Back To The Burner A rare 7-inch from 1981, listening to this wonderfully before-its-time early freaky-dub-house experiment now it's clear to see where so many later '80s artists found their inspiration.
NYC's Suicide stood out as some pioneers of the synth-led rock and pop movement, pre-dating artists like the Human League by almost a decade. It's clear to hear why Andes Trentemøller picked up on this one, with its sinister guitars and synth hooks sitting perfectly against a sharp breaking rhythm section.
Dripping with raw energy and the genius of social frustration, it's a sobering and remarkable addition to the mix. Delightfully tweaked blues rock and playful, powerful electronic beats are mashed together in this live recording.
Out of Stock Disengaged Heavy Water /I'd Rather Be Sleeping Stuck When We Fall Traveling Through A Sea Fishing Bird (Empty Gutted In The Evening Breeze) Invisible I'm Dragging A Dead Deer Up A Hill A Cover Over Wind And Snow Tidal Wave We've All Gone To Sleep Every record is shipped in original factory-applied shrink wrap and has never been touched by human hands.
However, removal of the tritium below the level (about 74 By/g) that would allow the heavy water to be useful for non-nuclear applications inside the high-tech, life science, and environmental sectors requires very specialized processes. CNL has extensive experience with the design and operation of hydrogen isotope separation technologies, either for heavy water processing or tritium removal.
The derivation process includes an overhead recombine where hydrogen and oxygen are reacted to form water, providing reflux to the operation. The Cede process can be tailored to achieve any particular degree of derivation and tritium enrichment by specifying the appropriate amount of Lace catalyst.
The required derivation factor (Of) sets the amount of catalyst above the feed point. Higher enrichment will reduce the amount of highly initiated water that must be stored or processed further.
However, higher enrichment may reduce the lifetime of equipment, particularly the E-cells, and potentially increase the hazards to the operators and maintainers. The byproduct, initiated heavy water, is therefore taken from condensate collected from the deuterium gas as it exits the E-cells and passes through a cooler.
CNL has been actively involved in developing advanced electrolysis technologies for its Cede process. In particular, this has led to work on PEM cells because of their promise of lower water inventories and benign chemistry.
Effort is underway to commercialize a PEM cell manufactured with polymer membranes that can operate for long periods with high concentrations of tritium . At the other end of the Lace system, the tritium-depleted deuterium is sent to a trickle-bed recombine (Tar), where it is reacted with the oxygen from the E-cells to form heavy water at relatively low tritium concentration.
In particular, the recombination efficiency of tritium in the electrolytic oxygen stream was improved, and the initiated- water feed point was moved to a location lower in the catalyst column. With the modifications, the facility was able to achieve Of greater than 50,000 (> 99.998 percent tritium removal) from a heavy water feed stream containing 330 BBQ/kg.
In the second CNL project, the Prototype Combined Industrial Reforming and Catalytic Exchange (CIRCE) Plant (Hamilton, Ontario), Stage 3 was a Cede process that concentrated deuterium in water from about 6 percent to 99.99 percent. These two demonstrations were the culmination of decades of development of catalysts, E-cell technologies, and process models, which provided the technical bases for the plants’ overall designs.
CNL (formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) was the lead process designer of the Wilson Tritium Removal Facility (WTF) in South Korea. As reported by Rupiah, et al. , both these plants are designed to provide moderator derivation to maintain a steady-state tritium level less than 370 BBQ/kg heavy water with a Of of 25–35.
The front end of the facility employs vapor-phase catalytic exchange process to transfer tritium from completely vaporized heavy water to gaseous deuterium. Both of the facilities employ cryogenic distillation as the back end for concentrating the elemental tritium.
The WTF started operation in 2007 and has processed 700 Mg heavy water per year at a capacity factor of about 90 percent. Studies for the design and the estimation of costs for a derivation plant based on the Cede process have been performed at CNL and elsewhere.
For instance, a study was conducted by Kinetics in collaboration with AEC and others on the feasibility of building a compact tritium removal plant for a single Candy 6 station. The study considered many options and provided conceptual designs of plants for 25 kg and 50 kg of heavy water per hour throughput based on a direct electrolysis front end and cryogenic distillation back end .
For example, CNL has carried out a conceptual design of a 600 Mg/a Cede light- water derivation plant specifically designed to reduce the tritium concentration of water in the NRU rod bays at CRL to reduce emission and personnel exposure . A much less well-defined plant costing for a derivation process to treat the collected light water from Fukushima (146,000 Mg/a) has also been done .
As part of a project supported by CNL Decommissioning and Waste Management, a business case is being developed to build and operate a facility that will purify and deteriorate heavy water to render it salable. The business case is being prepared to examine the net benefits of product sales and avoidance of the long-term storage costs of the unprocessed water as waste, compared against the capital and operating costs considerations of a facility to safely dispose of it.
These assumptions have been shown to be good approximations based on CNL’s laboratory testing and prototype plant operational experience . This tritium concentration is in the normal limit for commercial products that are available as fully nonradioactive materials.
The high tritium product flow rate allows for storage of relatively small volumes of water. As mentioned before, the use of the Cede water derivation process to achieve very high DFS has been demonstrated at CRL in the past .
However, to achieve DFS of higher magnitude, care must be taken to ensure that the effects of all process components on Of are considered. This Cede derivation plant considers that tritium will be collected as a high-tritium heavy water product that will be stored in dedicated tanks.
A back-end process, such as cryogenic distillation, may offer a pathway for eliminating all waste material and producing pure tritium as a salable product. This cost will need to be evaluated versus the benefits of producing pure tritium and eliminating the storage issue.
Upgrading services would typically include some significant chemical purification and also will reduce the volume of the initial heavy water processed. Upgrading initiated water using the service of an external contractor (e.g., an existing Candy station operator) would be considered.
It has the ability to achieve relatively high waste loading , acceptable mechanical strength, and leaching resistance. Phosphate ceramic technology has generally better leaching resistance and waste loading potential .
At the current market price of the heavy water, about $150 million could be recovered from the deteriorated product sale. Building a plant as described for treating the CRL heavy water may make a positive business case on the basis of potential revenue, but it should be significantly improved if the elimination of the disposal cost for a solidified product is added in to the value recovery.
While it is more difficult to quantify, the value of a CNL derivation facility as a demonstration of an advanced technology for commercial services is an additional positive factor in the overall economic assessment. Tritium removal from chemically and radiologically contaminated heavy water inventory at CNL can be effectively achieved with the Cede process.
This article is based on a paper presented at the 2019 Waste Management Conference, held March 3–7, 2019, in Phoenix, Ariz. Boniface, H.A., J. Robinson, N.V. Gnanapragasam, I. Castillo, and S. Rupiah, “A Practical Process from Light- Water Derivation at Large Scales,” The 19th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Aug. 24–28, 2014, PBNC2014-282 (2014).
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