logo
Archive

Grouper Hatchery

author
Maria Garcia
• Tuesday, 08 December, 2020
• 34 min read

The answer to this is to utilize modern technology via land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS),” the company owners state on their website. EAA started as a grouper hatchery and a nursery facility, located on the east coast of Phuket Island, in Thailand.

grouper hatchery technology slideshare
(Source: www.slideshare.net)

Contents

Not long after that, the owners quickly found it very challenging to keep fry alive after the stress of air transport. Seawater (32 to 34 parts per thousand) is pumped first through Zeolite filters, then past a large UV array, consisting of 12 150-watt lights, then through a protein skimmer where ozone is introduced, and finally through drum screen filters to the storage tanks.

From there it is moved to six independent RAS systems that are used for either brood stock, hatchery or nursery purposes. The company has a fish veterinarian on retainer and uses the expertise of the Thai fisheries branch for virus testing for Viral Nervous Necrosis and Rhinovirus.

The company’s eight giant grouper bloodstock, 60 to 80 kilograms in size and nearly 17 years old (they can live up to 80), originally came from Fisheries-reared stock. When asked about other disease issues, Bet hell says they first dealt with vibrato brought on by air transport stress.

The company currently offers four types of grouper fry: brown marbled/tiger grouper (Epimetheus fuscoguttatus), which has been farmed in sea cages for 50 years and can reach market size in eight to 10 months; coral trout (Plectropomus Leopards), a hybrid cross of Epimetheus fuscoguttatus x E. lancelatolatus, which reach market size in five months; a second hybrid Epimetheus fuscoguttatus x E. polyhedron; and Mouse grouper, Completes actively. Together with EAA’s in house nutritionist the company has been conducting fish food trials with black soldier fly protein larvae meal.

The company has looked at cryogenic sperm preservation, especially since one giant grouper can produce 200ml to 300ml per extraction, and only 1ml is needed to fertilize a million eggs. Bet hell says there is a lot of variability present when marble grouper are ready to spawn, including the moon cycles.

grouper aquaculture
(Source: www.scribd.com)

All these questions will be answered as the company refines its fish culture techniques to raise sustainable grouper. Specializing in aquaculture, Grouper Palace operates inshore cage farms off the coast of the Language islands as well as a hatchery in southern Medal.

Over the next 5 years, Grouper Palace intends to utilize its knowledge and expertise in the sector to operate a comprehensive marine aquaculture system throughout Malaysia. Grouper Palace intends to become a global leader in the field of sustainable marine aquaculture.

The entity manages a portfolio of investments in sustainable agriculture in various parts of the world namely in MENA and ASEAN. With high and growing demands from both the local and international markets, the statistics showcases a lucrative business venture.

Culture methods : · Although there is some production of grouper seed stock from hatcheries, most is still supplied through wild capture of juvenile fish. Survival is generally less than 5% to juvenile stage, although a few hatcheries have improved survival of some grouper species (barracuda cod Completes actively and tiger grouper Epimetheus fuscoguttatus) to around 40%.

Compounded (pellet) feeds are preferable, since they are more cost-effective and less environmentally damaging than the use of trash fish Asian producers may have a competitive advantage due to location close to the major markets, seed stock supplies, etc.

grouper
(Source: www.youtube.com)

Hatchery technology of Grouper Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Taxonomic Classification 2. Overview Most popular species in the reef food fish industry in Asia- Pacific region Fast growing, hardy,suitable for intensive culture Excellent characteristics for processing due to unique culinary attributes and scarcity In 1997, the Asia-Pacific Region contributed about 90% to the world Aquaculture pardon w/ Grouper at 15000 ton w/ China as the biggest producer contributing 8000 tons followed closely by Indonesia.

Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and Pacific, its continued DVP. Most economies w/recent exception to Chinese Taipei, rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking.

The origin of this name in Portuguese is believed to be from an indigenous South American language. In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku.

grouper hatchery
(Source: www.youtube.com)

In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer, and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region. Groupers are telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.

They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and weights up to 100 kg They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills.

LIFE CYCLE Many species move to particular areas at the same time each year to reproduce in spawning aggregations. The fertilized eggs hatch to very small forms (larval stages) which drift in ocean currents for 1 to 2 months.

Less than one in every thousand of the small floating forms survives to settle as a juvenile in shallow water near reefs. As they grow, they move onto coral reefs and less than one in every hundred of the young fish (juveniles) survives to become an adult.

6. drifting larval stages juveniles 1-2 months reef 3-7 years Spawning aggregations in many species 7. Groupers are mostly Protogynous Hermaphrodites, they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity Some species of groupers grow about a kilogram per year and are generally adolescent until they reach three kilograms, when they become female.

grouper training course report hatchery 2002 production
(Source: enaca.org)

The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.

The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing 10.

PROXIMAL CAUSES OF SEX CHANGE IN PROTOGYNOUS HERMAPHRODITE 11. CAUSES Removal of males from the population leads to sex change in the dominant(largest) females.

The sex ratio would depend upon the current spawning sex ratio within the aggregation, the proportion of adults surviving to spawn in subsequent years, and the proportion of inshore juveniles surviving to mature and enter successive aggregations. Some grouper population, males are more or less absent ‘till age 10 In case of Red grouper (Epinephalus Mario), the sex ratio is not equal until age 15.

Fishing Huntsman and Scarf (1994) point out that both protogynous and gonochoristic (separate sexes) population tends to lose reproductive capacity as fishing pressure increases. In protogynous stocks, however, increased fishing mortality might reduce the relative abundance of males by reducing the abundance of older-classes and diminish the probability that eggs will be successfully fertilized 14.

grouper hatchery management technology coloides dusky tail
(Source: www.slideshare.net)

Loss of behavioral interactions between male and female Combined with continued interaction between females, (Koenig et al. 1999) suggested that the loss of male-female interaction in Gag grouper (Mycteroperca microbes) occur at the endow aggregation period, when females purportedly return to swallowed inshore waters. To date: Only specie of grouper investigated Red hind(Epinephalus Gustavus) and Coney (Epinephalus vulva) have been histologically proven to be protogynous hermaphrodites but; Collin(1992) groupers that aggregate are not necessarily protogynous.

In contrast, male and female Gag grouper (Mycteroperca microbes) and Red hind (Epinephalus Gustavus) co-occur only during spawning season. COLLECTION AREA MONTH GROUPER SIZE Peninsula Malaysia, east cost November to December Average 2 cm Indonesia(e.g., Banter Bay) February to April Fry Thailand, coastal waters near mangrove areas January to March 7.5-10 cm fingerlings Philippines, variable peak season in diff.

Province Peaks mostly in June to December or October to November and April to May Tines, fry and fingerlings 18. Dusky tail grouper Epimetheus sleeker (Gallant) Lapu-lapu 22.

HATCHERY DESIGN Key component: Regardless of scale is the implementation of bio security to reduce the incidence of disease, (Van)viral nervous necrosis. Van (VIRAL NERVOUS NECROSIS) A common disease problem in marine finish hatcheries affecting most cultured marine finish species, including grouper.

Symptoms are disorientation of fish,change in color, becoming more dark. KEY FEATURES FOR Insecurity Separation of various functional areas; Access to hatchery limited only to essential personnel; Disinfection and thorough cleaning of all equipments; Routine monitoring for pathogens and disease; Optimization of water quality and nutrition to improve overall health and resistance of larvae.

grouper farming indoor hatchery aquaculture fingerlings hatcheries biosecurity sustainable operating procedures established raised
(Source: www.aquaculturealliance.org)

Collecting and purchasing of wild fish in a wide range of sizes. CRITERIA FOR Bloodstock SELECTION Normal body shape and color Absence of skeletal deformities Overall healthy status i.e., absence of large wounds hemorrhages, infections, and parasites Normal behavior, i.e., good response to food distribution Best growth and food conversion rate within this age group.

Fish should not be fed at least 24 hours beforehand to prevent feces and regurgitated feed from fouling transport water. Quarantine process-takes between 1and 4 weeks in small tanks(0.5-2 cubic meter)to facilitate water exchange and fish handling.

Bloodstock tanks are roofed in order to reduce the growth of algae on tank walls making egg collection difficult and increasing egg parasite infestation. Continuously supplied with fresh seawater at daily exchange rate of 200-300%.

Seawater should be filtered and clear with stable salinity (33-35ppt) and water temperature (27-30.5 degrees Celsius). TANK CLEANING Siphoning of excessive feed that accumulate on bottom to prevent water quality degradation.

After spawning remove excess dead eggs w/c decay and pollute the water. During tank cleaning to reduce incidence of parasite infestation.

grouper
(Source: www.youtube.com)

COMPONENTS OF FEED MIX Ingredients Amount Minced fish, squid, shrimp, etc. 793g Rice flour or other finely ground starch product 195g Transglutaminase B 10g Vitamin mix 1-2g(depending on recommended inclusion rate) Total 1 kg 35.

O cease to spawn when temperature drops around 25 degrees Celsius. INDUCED SPAWNING Prior to Induction: after acquisition of brood fish is stocked at concrete tanks at 6-12 months; Stocking density:1/2 cubic meters; Feed: fed daily with fresh trash fish; Feeding rate: 5% body weight; Tank water:50-70% is changed daily.

INDUCED SPAWNING CONTINUE… O Species selected for induction: female-having mean egg diameter of 400ug. INDUCTION PROCEDURE First injection, at dosages of 500 IU HCG + 3 mg of PG per kg of fish, and at final injection at 1000 IU HCG + 3 mg of PG per kg of fish at an interval of 24 hours, results showed that treated fish spawned naturally in spawning tank 12 hours after final injection.

TABLE 1.TYPE OF HORMONES, DOSAGES AND TIME INTERVALS USED FOR INDUCED SPAWNING Treatment Hormones used Dosage Time interval(hr) A HCG + pituitary gland of Chinese carp 500 IU + 3 mg PG / kg 12 B HCG + pituitary gland of Chinese carp 500 IU + 3 mg PG / kg 24 CL RH-a 10ug/kg 12 D HCG + pituitary gland of Chinese carp (1st) 500 IU + 3 mg /kg (2nd) 1000 IU + 3 mg PG/kg 24 44. Treatment Fish number Body weight(kg) Time interval (hr) Number of injections Hormone used Remarks 1 4.5 12 3 Partial ovulation, 12 hr after final injection.

Treatment Fish number Body weight(kg) Time interval (hr) Number of injections Hormone used Remarks 4 4.8 12 2 Partial ovulation, 15 hr after final injection. Treatment Fish number Body weight(kg) Time interval (hr) Number of injections Hormone used Remarks B 6 6.0 24 2 HCG 500 IU + 3 mg of fish Partial ovulation.

grouper skin broodstock giant sex determines test hatchery palma peter kilogram holding courtesy study author
(Source: www.hatcheryinternational.com)

All fish spawned naturally 12 hr after final injection. Fish under treatment B (Table1) ovulated 12-15 hours after the final injection, but fertilization was completed only by artificial stripping.

Ovulation rate of the females treated with hormonal injections at 24-hour intervals was higher than those at 12-hour intervals(Table 2), this is due to handling that cause fish stress. LARVAL AND FRY REARING (Epimetheus salaries) The larvae from hatching containers were collected and stocked in nine 250-1 fiberglass larval rearing tanks at a stocking rate of 2500 larvae per tank.

3 types of feed were tested in 3 replicates on a completely randomized design. O Type of feed fed to fry: 1st type- sea urchin eggs and Isochrysis; 2nd type-Isochrysis and Fractions; 3rd type- Tetraselmis and Fractions The larvae were reared indoor under intensive care conditions.

RESULTS FOR LARVAL AND FRY REARING sea urchin eggs are suitable feed for grouper larvae, diameter of sea urchin egg was about 50ug. Survival rate of fry fed with: • sea urchin eggs and Isochrysis from hatching to 20 days old was 9%; • 2% for those fed with Isochrysis and Fractions; • none of the fry fed with Tetraselmis and Fractions survived; all the larvae died after a culture period of 6 days.

Removal from collection net once the embryo has developed optic vesicles. However, handling eggs before this stage increases mortality and deformity.

grouper fish market rahman sr jakarta kerapu
(Source: jakartamarket.wordpress.com)

DISINFECTION Treated with ozone to minimize the chances of vertical transmission of Van (Viral Nervous Necrosis) from parent to offspring. INCUBATION After treatment, eggs are rinsed with clean and disinfected seawater.

Eggs are transferred into 0.5-1.0 cubic meters with aerated seawater. LARVAL REARING PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTS Larval Tanks-volume of 10cubic meter, depth of 1.2 m, color of bright yellow or pale blue to allow grouper larvae to discriminate prey more easily and tank cleaning easier, roofed, and enclosed to maintain water temp., and facilitate bio security.

Quarantined area with entry and exit of authorized person only, disinfection of all equipments. Aeration-provided in a grid pattern to ensure even water mixture, maintained DO levels, placed in corner to prevent stagnation, should be in the light in the early stage to prevent physical damage and could be increased if the larvae become robust.

LARVAL REARING PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTS Seawater used must be per-treated using sand filter to remove particulates, and then sterilized to reduce potential pathogen intro. PROBLEMS IN LARVAL REARING Surface aggregation mortality.

LIVE FOODS NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT Larvae of grouper require high levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids, EPA, ARA, DHA. Recommended for larvae: Artemis Fractions Isochrysis Tetraselmis 63.

(Source: www.youtube.com)

Grouper fry and fingerlings are caught using a variety of methods including hook and line, scoop or dip nets, traps, gang or fish nest, fish corral, and several types of nets. In the Philippines, the major sources of grouper fry include the provinces of Pangasinan, Cavity, Mindoro, Quezon, Mas bate, Vulcan, Catalan, Marianas, Zambian del SUR and Negros Oriental.

For larval leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopards) a tenfold increase in survival, in addition to more rapid development, was observed (Burgess, Allan, House, & Santos, 2019) (Melianawati, Stunt, & Surya, 2013). Despite these results, setting up cope pod production units has not been an option for most hatcheries, as they require much work and don’t always produce a steady supply.

However, due to companies like Feed * now supplying the Asian market, cope pod eggs can be obtained and hatched on demand similarly as Artemis cysts. One of these, Eco Aquaculture Asia in Thailand, reported that including cope pods in their hatchery feeds had led to stronger and faster growing grouper fry being produced, ultimately helping to increase their production levels.

For tiger grouper a significant increase in enzymatic (protease) response was demonstrated when cope pod Naples were added to the diet, raising the enzyme activity by 25.8 percent compared to traditional live feeds such as conifers and Artemis (Rimmed, et al., 2011). A similar result was seen for larval coral trout, where both a full and a partial inclusion of cope pods increased the activity of the digestive enzymes' protease, amylase and lipase significantly (Melianawati, Prating, Puniawati, & Astute, 2015).

In addition to ARA and EPA, the fatty acid DHA has been identified to be of crucial importance for tiger grouper larvae (Rimmed, et al., 2011). When starved, the larvae conserve this to a higher degree than other fatty acids, indicating how essential it is for early larval growth and development.

grouper training hatchery regional 5th course production report
(Source: enaca.org)

This could provide another reason why cope pods boost survival, growth and development of grouper larvae, as they naturally contain high level of these fatty acids, commonly reaching over 25 percent of the total lipid content (van der Mean, Olsen, Hare, & John, 2008). The newly hatched Naples of Acadia tons are close to 100 µm in length, making them perfect as a feed for the larvae of most grouper species.

In nature, cope pods are considered the most important group of zooplankton, forming a vital link between primary production and fish larvae. Studies on gut content in larvae of coastal tropical fish revealed that the majority relied on cope pods as their primary source of feed (Tampa, MacKinnon, Meek an, & McCormick, 2007).

In combination with a nutritional composition that is ideal for first feeding, this easy solution of introducing cope pods into commercial grouper aquaculture could greatly improve the productivity of hatcheries in the future. Burgess, A. I., Allan, C. K., House, R., & Santos, M. D. (2019) Increasing survival a growth in larval leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopards) using intensively cultured Parvocalanus crassirostris Naples.

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries Melianawati, R., Stunt, N. W., & Surya, K. (2013) The use of cope pods to improve juveniles production of coral trout Plectropomus leopards (Labeled, 1802). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 237-244 Melianawati, R., Prating, R., Puniawati, N., & Astute, P. (2015) The effect of various kind of live feeds to digestive enzymes' activity of coral trout Plectropomus leopards (Labeled, 1802) larvae.

Biological Features Body elongate, not very compressed; teeth on midsize of lower jaw in 2 rows; nostrils subequal; Serra at corner of properly moderately enlarged; fourth dorsal spine usually longest; membranes of spinors portion of dorsal fin incised; caudal fin rounded; pelvic fins not reaching anus. Light grayish brown dorsally, shading to whitish on side and centrally, with numerous brownish orange or brownish yellow spots the size of pupil or smaller on head and body; 5 slightly diagonal grayish brown bars on head and body which bifurcate centrally, the first 4 extending basally into dorsal fin; brownish orange spots on body tend to be arranged in rows parallel to dark bars, this more evident on smaller than larger fish; large dark grayish brown blotches usually present on head, the most prominent behind eye and on operate; fins whitish to light dusky with brownish orange to brown spots except distally on spinors portion of dorsal fin, caudal fin and pectoral.

hatchery fish farm types algae grouper fingerlings feed cultivates finfish healthy pomfret
(Source: jurgenfreund.photoshelter.com)

Unpublished data record maximum weight as 32 kg and length of male at maturity of 120 cm TL. Historical Background Groupers are generally cultured in floating net cages or earthen ponds, but cage culture is more common in Southeast Asia.

In 1979, the Pelf Station of the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute (Teri) started artificial propagation by using hormone-inducing technique. E. Coioides is one of the two major cultured groupers in Taiwan P C. The National Mari culture Center, Bahrain has conducted mass fry production trials of this species since 1992.

Grouper pond production is becoming an attractive alternative to intensive shrimp culture in countries where management problems have forced growers to abandon shrimp farming. Main Producer Countries The map shown below is constructed from FAO reported statistics for this species.

Habitat and Biology Epimetheus coincides occurs in the western Indian Ocean from the southern Red Sea to Natal and east to the western Pacific where it is distributed from Ryukyu Islands to New South Wales. It ranges east into Oceania only to Paley in the Northern Hemisphere and Fiji in the Southern.

Orange-spotted groupers inhabit turbid coastal reefs and are often found in brackish water over mud and rubble. Juveniles are common in the shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves, feeding on small fish, shrimp, and crabs.

grouper hatchery roy tiger ladder patiently musketeers waiting three
(Source: hatcheryfamily.blogspot.com)

They probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so and the eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic. Seed Supply and Hatchery Techniques Brooders of E. coincides are stocked in separate 50 m 3 tanks.

Most of the brooders are collected from the wild and reared for 1 to 7 years using seawater at a constant temperature of 27-28 °C and 45 ‰, following standard culture methods. The fish are fed with frozen sardines, mackerels, cuttlefish, squids and top-shell clams because these foods have high contents of cholesterol, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

At the National Mari culture Center in Bahrain orange spotted grouper eggs are collect following standard methods. Under a constant temperature regime of 27-28 °C, natural spawning was maintained during a 33-month period between October 1992 and July 1995 and the total number of eggs collected during that period was 279 million.

Daily floating egg rates varied from 5.6 to 69.6 per cent (average 36.8 percent). Whenever brooders do not spawn naturally, mature females and males are selected from bloodstock tanks and injected with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) at 700 and 500 IU/kg By respectively.

There were over ten grouper breeder farms raising >10 000 spawners in Southern Taiwan P.C. The eggs are incubated in the same tank with moderate aeration and running water until they hatch.

grouper hatchery tiger
(Source: www.rgca.org.in)

Newly open-mouth larvae are fed once a day with enriched Fractions plicatilis, Sportier of 160-180 µm size at a density of 5-6 conifers/ml. At TL 6-25 mm, the larvae are also fed enriched Artemis Naples to satiation for 1 to 3 hrs once in the afternoon.

Hatchery reared or wild-caught fry are nursed in tanks or APA nets until they reach 6 cm. Once natural food is abundant, adult tilapia are added at a stocking density of 5 000-10 000/ha to produce fingerlings to serve as live prey for the groupers.

Grouper fingerlings (~6 cm TL) are added at 5 000-10 000/ha at least a month after the release of adult tilapia. Sorting and grading of the fingerlings is carried out weekly to prevent cannibalism and to minimize competition for space and food.

If tilapia fingerlings are not abundant, supplementary feeding is carried out using chopped fish at 5 per cent By/day, half early in the morning and the rest late in the afternoon. Fish are fed with appropriate fresh or frozen chopped fish daily at 10 per cent By or with pelleted feeds 3 per cent By, half early in the morning and half late in the afternoon.

0.5 per cent vitamin and mineral premix is added to the properly thawed trash fish before feeding. Floating net cages should be moved to a new site every 2-3 years of culture to allow deteriorating bottom conditions to recover.

aquaculture pacific finfish hatchery grouper marine development asia research gondol cooperative efforts drive bali indonesia species trainees naca feed 2002
(Source: www.aquaculturealliance.org)

The duration of culture in the grow-out phase is 4-7 months, depending on the preferred size at harvest. Fish are harvested by seine in the early morning or late afternoon.

The water is disturbed (agitated) two hours before harvest to prevent occurrence of rigid muscles in the fish. It is advisable to install 8×2x1.5 or 8×4x1.5 m net cages (25 mm mesh) in the ponds to hold fish temporarily.

The net cage should be inspected for any damage and then lifted slowly from one side to concentrate the fish in one corner. Care must be taken to avoid loss of scales or causing lesions on fish during harvesting.

Handling and Processing Harvested fish are stocked in an aerated conditioning tank. To slow metabolic activity, the water temperature is slowly lowered to 20 °C (2-3 °C/hr) by adding crushed ice in plastic bags or by using cooling pumps.

The bags are packed in styrofoam boxes to which an adequate amount of frozen gel packs, ice bags or frozen water in sealed plastic bottles wrapped in old newspapers is added to keep the temperature low during transportation. This method is suitable for air transport for a period not exceeding 8 hours after packing.

kerapu skype
(Source: www.youtube.com)

Other large factors are feed (30 percent), followed by administrative expenses and fuel and power requirements for heater/chillers and automatic feeders. Diseases and Control Measures In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation. DiseaseAgentTypeSyndromeMeasuresBlister diseaseIridovirus GIV-2VirusHighly localized severe inflammation of epidermal and dermal layer; dermis necrotized, containing exudation and hemorrhagic infiltration at the area of intact layer; presence of icosahedral to round-shaped virions with a diameter of 180-200 nm in infected liver, spleen, kidney and lesions Good prophylaxis & good husbandry conditionsVibriosisVibrio SPP. BacteriaSignificant numbers of monogenean parasites causing gill lesions observedVaccination, good prophylaxis & good husbandry conditionsParasitic InfestationsCryptobia SP, Scythia SP.

Neobenedenia Giselle Graphic SP. Protozoans Monogeneans Isopods and gill lesions; pigmentation; ulceration; skin area haemorrhagesGood prophylaxis & good husbandry conditionsSwim-Bladder SyndromeUndiagnosed or unknownOver-inflation of the swim bladder; loss of buoyancy control Good prophylaxis & good husbandry conditions Popeye (Exopthalmosis)Undiagnosed or unknownExtremely bulging eyes No known successful treatment Suppliers of Pathology Expertise. Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Department of Fisheries, Kasetsart University Campus, Natural, Bangkok, Thailand.

National Mari culture Center, Directorate of Marine Resources, Bahrain. Generally, groupers are a popular food fish and it is estimated that the market demand may reach 100 000 tonnes per year in 2020.

Therefore, sustainable aquaculture of groupers and their related species deserves further development. Restaurants display live groupers in Aquarian fitted with water recirculation systems.

As production techniques have improved and off-flavours have been controlled in Taiwan P.C., Singapore and Japan by keeping the market-sized fish in tanks with running water for two days without feeding, orange-spotted groupers have moved into the mainstream seafood markets of developed countries. In highly industrialized countries, small markets for live groupers or frozen imports developed among immigrant communities.

stac
(Source: www.youtube.com)

With the appearance of fresh grouper fillets from tropical countries, new markets opened in upper echelon restaurants, casual dining restaurant chains, hypermarkets and discount stores. Virtually all casual dining restaurant chains in the Orient feature groupers, which are an ideal addition to the menu due to their reasonable price, year-round supply, mild, delicious flavor and flexibility in preparation.

China, a major exporter of groupers, has great potential for market development to supply a rapidly growing middle class. Groupers are considered as a high-value species with a high potential for contributing to the economic development of these countries.

The expanding trade in live groupers of various ages and stages, whether for aquaculture or for seafood restaurants, has increased demand since 2006. The development of new faster-growing strains through selective breeding techniques and use of Intensive cost-effective recirculation systems are imperative to increase the production.

The main issues constraining the further development of orange spotted grouper farming include: Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and the Pacific, its continued development is constrained by the limited availability of fingerlings.

Most economies, except China Taiwan P.C., rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking. The inadequate supply of seed is further aggravated by lack of appropriate handling techniques during collection, transport and storage of collected fish, and sometimes by an unregulated management of the wild stocks.

grouper aquaculture hawaii research fish giant hilo groupers specialty broodstock aqua garcia ortega armando edu faculty
(Source: hilo.hawaii.edu)

There is a lack of appropriate techniques for efficient grouper culture to marketable sizes. A major production constraint is heavy mortality of groupers during the collection and culture phases due to handling stress and diseases.

Research to solve these problems is under way in Japan, Taiwan P.C., Thailand and Bahrain. Used during production mainly to prevent and treat bacterial disease, antibiotics are leading to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are pathogenic to humans.

The development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is considered to be one of the most serious risks to human health at the global level. Many countries around the world have introduced, changed or tightened national regulations on the use of antibiotics, in general and within the aquaculture sector.

Integrated efforts could help to explain the development of intensive productions systems and answer questions raised by the public. Thus, they are the most suitable people to interact with farm operatives and government inspectors in examining the animals and deciding whether they are showing signs of good health and well-being.

The demand for wild seed has led to unsustainable and illegal practices such as the use of cyanide to capture large numbers of seed with relatively low investment in time and effort. Grouper fisheries that are based on illegal or destructive fishing practices underline the urgent need for habitat protection and sustainable utilization of natural resources.

scale hatcheries seafdec ph aqd
(Source: www.seafdec.org.ph)

Artificial propagation of the grouper, Epimetheus skills at the marine finish hatchery in Tanning Doming, Terengganu, Malaysia. In: W. Fischer & G. Bianchi (eds), FAO Species Identification Sheets, Western Indian Ocean.

Tan (eds), Proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-30 October 1992, Singapore, pp. Hatchery production of grouper, Epimetheus coincides, and rabbit fish, Signs canaliculatus, at the National Mari culture Center, Bahrain: 1995.

National Mari culture Center, Directorate of Fisheries, Ministry of Works & Agriculture, State of Bahrain. Hatchery production of the grouper, Epimetheus coincides, at the National Mari culture Center, Bahrain: 1993-1994.

National Mari culture Center, Directorate of Fisheries, Ministry of Works & Agriculture, State of Bahrain. Sexual maturation, length and age in some species of Kuwait fish related to their suitability for aquaculture.

Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Performed: Serranidae: Epinephrine), with descriptions of five new species. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Manila, Philippines.

grouper hatchery management
(Source: fr.slideshare.net)

Hatchery Management of Grouper Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae 2. Overview Most popular species in the reef food fish industry in Asia Pacific region Fast growing, hardy,suitable for intensive culture Excellent characteristics for processing due to unique culinary attributes and scarcity In 1997, the Asia-Pacific Region contributed about 90% to the world Aquaculture pardon w/ Grouper at 15000 ton w/ China as the biggest producer contributing 8000 tons followed closely by Indonesia.

Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and Pacific, its continued DVP. Most economies w/recent exception to Chinese Taipei, rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking.

The origin of this name in Portuguese is believed to be from an indigenous South American language. In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku.

grouper fish species tiger hybrid kerapu malaysia garupa alien malaysian fishes epinephelus harimau coast ocean fishyology
(Source: coastoflife.blogspot.com)

In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer, and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region. Groupers are telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.

They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and weights up to 100 kg They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills.

Groupers are mostly Protogynous Hermaphrodites, they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity Some species of groupers grow about a kilogram per year and are generally adolescent until they reach three kilograms, when they become female. The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.

Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times. The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover.

Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing 8. PROXIMAL CAUSES OF SEX CHANGE IN PROTOGYNOUS HERMAPHRODITE 9.

(Source: www.youtube.com)

CAUSES Removal of males from the population leads to sex change in the dominant(largest) females. The sex ratio would depend upon the current spawning sex ratio within the aggregation, the proportion of adults surviving to spawn in subsequent years, and the proportion of inshore juveniles surviving to mature and enter successive aggregations.

Some grouper population, males are more or less absent “till age 10 In case of Red grouper (Epinephalus Mario), the sex ratio is not equal until age 15. Fishing Huntsman and Scarf (1994) point out that both protogynous and gonochoristic (separate sexes) population tends to lose reproductive capacity as fishing pressure increases.

In protogynous stocks, however, increased fishing mortality might reduce the relative abundance of males by reducing the abundance of older-classes and diminish the probability that eggs will be successfully fertilized 12. Loss of behavioral interactions between male and female Combined with continued interaction between females, (Koenig et al. 1999) suggested that the loss of male-female interaction in Gag grouper (Mycteroperca microbes) occur at the endow aggregation period, when females purportedly return to swallowed inshore waters.

To date: Only specie of grouper investigated Red hind(Epinephalus Gustavus) and Coney (Epinephalus vulva) have been histologically proven to be protogynous hermaphrodites but; Collin(1992) groupers that aggregate are not necessarily protogynous. In contrast, male and female Gag grouper (Mycteroperca microbes) and Red hind (Epinephalus Gustavus) co-occur only during spawning season.

GROUPER SEED IS A COLLECTIVE TERM THAT INCLUDES: POSTLARVAE Transparent, brownish or reddish unscaled fish, 0.1-2.5 cm(< an inch) in size ND sometimes called “Tines”. Metamorphosed Fry scaled fish, darker than post larvae, measure 2.5-7.5 cm (13 inches) w/ single continuous dorsal fin, elongated second dorsal spine and pelvic spines.

grouper hatchery technology coloides cod
(Source: www.slideshare.net)

Fingerlings Usually 7.5-12.5 cm (3-5 inch) color and appearance starting to follow the market sized stage. Size is often measured from tip of the mouth to the end of caudal fin.

COLLECTION AREA MONTH GROUPER SIZE Peninsula Malaysia, east cost November to December Average 2 cm Indonesia(e.g., Banter Bay) February to April Fry Thailand, coastal January to March waters near mangrove areas 7.5-10 cm fingerlings Philippines, variable peak season in diff. Province Tines, fry and fingerlings Peaks mostly in June to December or October to November and April to May 19.

Dusky tail grouper Epimetheus sleeker (Gallant) Lapu-lapu 23. Key HATCHERY DESIGN ENTRANCE OF HATCHERY FACILITY component: Regardless of scale is the implementation of bio security to reduce the incidence of disease, (Van)viral nervous necrosis.

Van (VIRAL NERVOUS NECROSIS) A common disease problem in marine finish hatcheries affecting most cultured marine finish species, including grouper. Symptoms are disorientation of fish,change in color, becoming more dark.

KEY FEATURES FOR Insecurity Separation of various functional areas; Access to hatchery limited only to essential personnel; Disinfection and thorough cleaning of all equipments; Routine monitoring for pathogens and disease; Optimization of water quality and nutrition to improve overall health and resistance of larvae. Collecting and purchasing of wild fish in a wide range of sizes.

grouper hatchery technology
(Source: studylib.net)

CRITERIA FOR Bloodstock SELECTION Normal body shape and color Absence of skeletal deformities Overall healthy status i.e., absence of large wounds hemorrhages, infections, and parasites Normal behavior, i.e., good response to food distribution Best growth and food conversion rate within this age group. Fish should not be fed at least 24 hours beforehand to prevent feces and regurgitated feed from fouling transport water.

Quarantine process-takes between 1and 4 weeks in small tanks(0.5-2 cubic meter)to facilitate water exchange and fish handling. This period focuses on reducing parasite load of fish regularly by placing them in freshwater bath for 5 min.

To eliminate common parasites (skin flukes, protozoans etc.) If water quality in bloodstock tanks markedly different form previous holding environment, fish acclimation by placing them in a tank filled with original water, and slowly add new tank water for up to 1 hr.

Bloodstock tanks are roofed in order to reduce the growth of algae on tank walls making egg collection difficult and increasing egg parasite infestation. Continuously supplied with fresh seawater at daily exchange rate of 200-300%.

Seawater should be filtered and clear with stable salinity (33-35ppt) and water temperature (27-30.5 degrees Celsius). TANK CLEANING Siphoning of excessive feed that accumulate on bottom to prevent water quality degradation.

(Source: selfocean.blogspot.com)

After spawning remove excess dead eggs w/c decay and pollute the water. During tank cleaning to reduce incidence of parasite infestation.

COMPONENTS OF FEED MIX Ingredients Amount Minced fish, squid, shrimp, etc. 793g Rice flour or other finely ground starch product 195g Transglutaminase B 10g Vitamin mix 1-2g(depending on recommended inclusion rate) Total 1 kg 39.

GENDER IDENTIFICATION Grouper bloodstock held in tanks at low densities usually,1 kg/cubic meters. However,groupers are protogynous, to mediate, the presence of male fish may repress sex change by females.

TO IDENTIFY GENDER: Physical examination; abdomen of anesthetized fish is massage in a head-to-tail direction Male- will extrude copious milt from urogenital pore; Female- eggs are ovulated and can be determined by egg cannulation. Cease to spawn when temperature drops around 25 degrees Celsius.

IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS pH 7.5-8.3 temperature 25-32 degrees Celsius salinity 20-32 PPT Dissolved oxygen 4-8 ppm NO2-N(Nitrogen Nitrite) 0-0.05 ppm Unionized ammonia < 0.02 ppm Australian Center for International Agricultural Research,2012 45. INDUCED SPAWNING Prior to Induction: after acquisition of brood fish is stocked at concrete tanks at 6-12 months; Stocking density:1/2 cubic meters; Feed: fed daily with fresh trash fish; Feeding rate: 5% body weight; Tank water:50-70% is changed daily.

grouper
(Source: enaca.org)

INDUCTION PROCEDURE First injection, at dosages of 500 IU HCG + 3 mg of PG per kg of fish, and at final injection at 1000 IU HCG + 3 mg of PG per kg of fish at an interval of 24 hours, results showed that treated fish spawned naturally in spawning tank 12 hours after final injection. FERTILIZATION After injection the fertilized egg that naturally spawned in tanks were collected with a fine dip net(100 micron mesh size).

TABLE 1.TYPE OF HORMONES, DOSAGES AND TIME INTERVALS USED FOR INDUCED SPAWNING Treatment Hormones used Dosage Time interval(hr) A HCG + pituitary gland of Chinese carp 500 IU + 3 mg PG / kg 12 B HCG + pituitary gland of Chinese carp 500 IU + 3 mg PG / kg 24 CL RH-a 10ug/kg 12 D HCG + pituitary gland of Chinese carp (1st) 500 IU + 3 mg /kg (2nd) 1000 IU + 3 mg PG/kg 24 51. Treatment Body weight(kg) Time interval (hr) Number of injections 1 4.5 12 3 Partial ovulation, 12 hr after final injection.

Treatment Fish number Body weight(kg) Time interval (hr) Number of injections Hormone used Remarks 4 4.8 12 2 Partial ovulation, 15 hr after final injection. Treatment Fish number Body weight(kg) Time interval (hr) Number of injections Hormone used Remarks B 6 6.0 24 2 HCG 500 IU + 3 mg of fish Partial ovulation.

All fish spawned naturally 12 hr after final injection. Fish under treatment B (Table1) ovulated 12-15 hours after the final injection, but fertilization was completed only by artificial stripping.

Ovulation rate of the females treated with hormonal injections at 24-hour intervals was higher than those at 12-hour intervals(Table 2), this is due to handling that cause fish stress. LARVAL AND FRY REARING (Epimetheus salaries) The larvae from hatching containers were collected and stocked in nine 250-1 fiberglass larval rearing tanks at a stocking rate of 2500 larvae per tank.

hatchery fish grouper orange epinephelus area spotted
(Source: www.slideshare.net)

3 types of feed were tested in 3 replicates on a completely randomized design. O Type of feed fed to fry: 1st type- sea urchin eggs and Isochrysis; 2nd type-Isochrysis and Fractions; 3rd type- Tetraselmis and Fractions The larvae were reared indoor under intensive care conditions.

RESULTS OF LARVAL AND FRY REARING Showed that sea urchin eggs are suitable feed for grouper larvae, diameter of sea urchin egg was about 50ug. Survival rate of fry fed with: • sea urchin eggs and Isochrysis from hatching to 20 days old was 9%; • 2% for those fed with Isochrysis and Fractions; • none of the fry fed with Tetraselmis and Fractions survived; all the larvae died after a culture period of 6 days.

MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Hatched OF LARVAE measure 1.4-1.7 mm TL; Mouth opens 2-3 days after hatching; yolk is completely absorbed; By 10-30 Day, elongated dorsal and pelvic spines; Metamorphoses to juvenile at about 40-45 Day. HATCHING RATE Dead and live eggs and hatched larvae are distributed differently in the tank, to calculate hatching rates mix eggs and larvae in the tank by swirling through disinfected beakers or small containers.

CALCULATION OF HATCHING RATES Nun + NH = (NT) total # of eggs in the sample The hatching rate % is NH / NT X 1OO 66. QUALITATIVE ESTIMATION OF FERTILIZATION AND HATCHING RATES Fertilized eggs are examined under a microscope (10× or 20× magnification is sufficient) for the following: eggs should be regular during the early stages of embryonic development, the individual cells should be regular eggs and embryos should be completely transparent, with no dark areas chariots (eggshells) should be free of any parasites or fouling organisms.

Removal from collection net once the embryo has developed optic vesicles. However, handling eggs before this stage increases mortality and deformity.

palawan grouper species
(Source: www.youtube.com)

DISINFECTION Treated with ozone to minimize the chances of vertical transmission of Van (Viral Nervous Necrosis) from parent to offspring. INCUBATION After treatment, eggs are rinsed with clean and disinfected seawater.

Eggs are transferred into 0.5-1.0 cubic meters with aerated seawater. LARVAL REARING PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTS Larval Tanks-volume of 10cubic meter, depth of 1.2 m, color of bright yellow or pale blue to allow grouper larvae to discriminate prey more easily and tank cleaning easier, roofed, and enclosed to maintain water temp., and facilitate bio security.

Quarantined area with entry and exit of authorized person only, disinfection of all equipments. Aeration-provided in a grid pattern to ensure even water mixture, maintained DO levels, placed in corner to prevent stagnation, should be in the light in the early stage to prevent physical damage and could be increased if the larvae become robust.

LARVAL REARING PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTS Seawater used must be per-treated using sand filter to remove particulates, and then sterilized to reduce potential pathogen intro. PROBLEMS IN LARVAL REARING Surface aggregation mortality.

The authors note that it’s taken a few decades, but agriculturists on the Saudi peninsula, and in the Middle East overall, have convinced early skeptics that growing fish in the unforgiving desert climate is doable. With recent announcements of private and public investments in the sector over the coming years, the Middle East aquaculture industry is setting up to be a multi-billion dollar market.

The National Mari culture Center in Bahrain, a small Arab state situated on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf, has successfully achieved the hatchery production of several species for the fish farming sector in that country as well as the region, according to Muthunayagam and Cardiac’s paper. Bahrain’s Marine Environment Research Center in UMM Al Taiwan has begun producing fry rabbit fish, spotted grouper, large scale mullet (Liza macrologies), and society sea bream (Sparidentex pasta).

“When private firms lock up the breeding, agriculture and farming methodologies, then sustainable world food solutions… are likely to be beyond the financial means of the people who might need them the most. Though these countries “stand at the threshold” of research they are still advancing slowly towards commercial production levels in terms of technology and infrastructure development, explain the authors.

“An assured flow of the farm gate product is also ensured, enabling a complete exploitation of the fish processing plant to its fullest capacity.” Future hatchery efforts in the Middle East could focus on other lucrative species like greater amber jack and cobra, which have shown some success in small trial runs in the Arabian Gulf, the FAO officials stated.

“Our farm was fully stocked but the operational cost escalated disproportionately and it just ran out of funding to kick us over that last hurdle,” Dr Knocked said. ATA farms giant grouper in Hong Kong and Taiwan, and with established customers in premium markets in Asia, the reassembled team is back at work, confident its future is now, finally, bright.

Manager of the Cairns hatchery, Dr Richard Knocked is not displacing prawn farming, but rather here to grow a market for Queensland Groper. Queensland Groper is known as giant grouper in Asia, where it is highly prized as a banquet fish, and can fetch close to $200 a kilogram.

The Cairns hatchery and nursery, now named Tropical Finish, will turn out a record 1 million fish this year, and has the capacity to double that. With the Gold Coast on the farm's doorstep, Ms Zip predicted strong demand from restaurants catering to Chinese tourists who regard it as “the Rolls-Royce of fish”.

(Landline) While Mr Zip is pleased to have the chance to continue fish farming, he said he was unhappy the State Government walked away from its multi-million-dollar investment, leaving the intellectual property it paid for in private hands. (Landline) Dr Knocked has had a challenging, stressful and ultimately successful 19 years working on the giant fish.

Other Articles You Might Be Interested In

01: Cms 2020 Pdgm Grouper Tool
02: Cms Asc Grouper 2007 List
03: Cms Asc Grouper Rates
04: Cms Grouper Tool
05: Cms Grouper Tool 2020
06: Cms Grouper Tool For Home Health
07: Cms Grouper Tool Home Health
08: Cms Grouper Tool Pdgm
09: Cms Grouper Tool Pdpm
10: Cms Interactive Grouper Tool
Sources
1 www.cms.gov - https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/HomeHealthPPS/HH-PDGM
2 www.cms.gov - https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/HomeHealthPPS/CaseMixGrouperSoftware
3 www.cgsmedicare.com - https://www.cgsmedicare.com/hhh/education/materials/pdgm.html
4 www2.deloitte.com - https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/regulatory/articles/modernize-medicare-home-health.html
5 www.bcbsil.com - https://www.bcbsil.com/provider/education/2019/2019_09_25.html
6 homehealthcarenews.com - https://homehealthcarenews.com/2019/05/home-health-audits-expected-to-spike-in-pdgm-aftermath/
7 www.findacode.com - https://www.findacode.com/tools/home-health-pdgm-calculator/
8 www.healthlifes.info - https://www.healthlifes.info/pdgm-coding-tool/