Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.
In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.
Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Groupers are a species of fish that belong to the Epinephrine subfamily of the family Serranidae. As telecasts, all types of grouper have a stout body and a large mouth and are weak swimmers.
Irrespective of the types of grouper you wish to target you can catch large ones with lures, live and dead bait. If you are casting in the shallows, use jerk bait and retrieve it erratically to lure the fish out in the open.
You will need heavy tackle, especially if there are a lot of rocks under the water where you are fishing and a braided line that can withstand the powerful pull of a caught grouper. If you are using spinning tackle, make sure that the reel is heavy enough to withstand an 80 to 100-pound test mainline and a low gear ratio to give you more control.
This tackle will come in handy when the panicking grouper fish tries to swim under a ledge to break the line. For live bait, use pinkish, grunts, blue runner, sardines, and mullet.
The grouper is a lean and moist fish that has a mild flavor, and the flesh is firm and flaky. There are approximately 70 fish recognized as being commonly found in UAE waters.
There is so much variety and amazing beauty in these fish species. Those in the UAE ’s Mow department tell us that some of these fish are on the endangered list.
Old time fishermen and those who have been going to the markets for years say that the supply of fish is not as plentiful as they used to be (see the video statement). A study conducted by the Environment Agency Abu Dhabi (EAD) from 1978-2002 showed a decline of about 81% in all major commercial fish stocks.
PteroisPterois Holsteins Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Scorpaeniformes Family: Scorpaenidae Subfamily: Terminal Genus: Steroid Open, 1817 Type species Steroid Holsteins Lionfish have 18 venomous spines total: 2 pelvic spines, 3 anal spines, and 13 dorsal spines Steroid is a genus of venomous marine fish, commonly known as lionfish, native to the Indo-Pacific. Also called zebrafish, fire fish, turkey fish, tasty fish or butterfly-cod, it is characterized by conspicuous warning coloration with red, white, creamy, or black bands, showy pectoral fins, and venomous spiky fin rays.
ImageScientific Name Common Name Distribution Steroid Andover G. R. Allen & Bergmann, 2008Andover lionfishIndonesia and Papua New Guinea and ranges as far as Sarah, Malaysia, and the Philippines Steroid antenna ta (Bloch, 1787)Spot-fin lionfishtropical Indian and Western Pacific Oceans Steroid brevipectoralis (Bandits, 2002)Western Indian Ocean Steroid CICTA Russell, 1838Red Sea lionfish Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea Steroid ungulate Terminal & Schlemiel, 1843Luna lionfishWestern Pacific Ocean Steroid miles (J. W. Bennett, 1828)Devil firefishIndian Ocean, from the Red Sea, to South Africa, and to Indonesia Steroid Mombasa (J. L. B. Smith, 1957)African lionfish, frill-fin turkeyfishtropical Indian Ocean and the Western Pacific Steroid paucispinula Satsuma & Motor, 2014 India to northern Australia (Timor Sea); north to southern Japan; eastwards to Wallis and Future Islands Steroid radiate G. Cuvier, 1829Clear-fin lionfish Red Sea to Indiana Bay, South Africa and to the Society Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia Steroid Russell E. T. Bennett, 1831Plaintail turkey fish, soldier lionfish, or Russell's lionfishPersian Gulf and East Africa to New Guinea, south to Western Australia Steroid she D. S. Jordan & Hermann, 1903Hawaiian turkeyfishHawaii Steroid Holsteins (Linnaeus, 1758)Red lionfish Indo-Pacific region Steroid are harmful to humans. Juvenile lionfish have a unique tentacle located above their eye sockets that varies in phenotype between species.
The evolution of this tentacle is suggested to serve to continually attract new prey; studies also suggest it plays a role in sexual selection. Steroid species can live from 5 to 15 years and have complex courtship and mating behaviors.
Studies on Steroid reproductive habits have increased significantly in the past decade. All the species are aposematic : they have conspicuous coloration with boldly contrasting stripes and wide fans of projecting spines, advertising their ability to defend themselves.
According to a study that involved the dissection of over 1,400 lionfish stomachs from Bahamian to North Carolinian waters, Steroid fish prey mostly on small fish, invertebrates, and mollusks in large amounts, with some specimens' stomachs containing up to six different species of prey. Lionfish are skilled hunters, using specialized bilateral swim bladder muscles to provide precise control of location in the water column, allowing the fish to alter its center of gravity to better attack prey.
The lionfish then spreads its large pectoral fins and swallows its prey in a single motion. They blow jets of water while approaching prey, apparently to disorient them.
This results in a higher degree of predatory efficiency as head-first capture is easier for the lionfish. Aside from instances of larger lionfish individuals engaging in cannibalism on smaller individuals, adult lionfish have few identified natural predators, likely from the effectiveness of their venomous spines.
Moray eels (family Muraenidae), blue spotted cornet fish (Fistulas commersonii), and large groupers, like the tiger grouper (Mycteroperca Tigris) and Nassau grouper (Epimetheus stratus), have been observed preying on lionfish. It remains unknown, however, how commonly these predators prey on lionfish.
Sharks are also believed to be capable of preying on lionfish with no ill effects from their spines. Park officials of the Roman Marine Park in Honduras have attempted to train sharks to feed on lionfish as of 2011 in an attempt to control the invasive populations in the Caribbean.
The Bobbie worm, an ambush predator, has been filmed preying upon lionfish in Indonesia. Predators of larvae and juvenile lionfish remain unknown, but may prove to be the primary limiting factor of lionfish populations in their native range.
Lionfish are known for their venomous fin rays, an uncommon feature among reef-dwelling fish along the American East Coast and Caribbean. The potency of their venom makes them excellent predators and hazardous to fishermen and divers.
Steroid venom produced negative isotropic and phototropic effects when tested in both frog and clam hearts and has a depressive effect on rabbit blood pressure. These results are thought to be due to nitric oxide release.
In humans, Steroid venom can cause systemic effects such as extreme pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, breathing difficulties, convulsions, dizziness, redness on the affected area, headache, numbness, paresthesia (pins and needles), heartburn, diarrhea, and sweating. Rarely, such stings can cause temporary paralysis of the limbs, heart failure, and even death.
Fatalities are common in very young children, the elderly, those with a weak immune system, or those who are allergic to their venom. Their venom is rarely fatal to healthy adults, but some species have enough venom to produce extreme discomfort for a period of several days.
However, Steroid venom poses a danger to allergic victims as they may experience anaphylaxis, a serious and often life-threatening condition that requires immediate emergency medical treatment. Severe allergic reactions to Steroid venom include chest pain, severe breathing difficulties, a drop in blood pressure, swelling of the tongue, sweating, runny nose, or slurred speech.
They can be found around the seaward edge of reefs and coral, in lagoons, and on rocky surfaces commonly to 50 m deep, although lionfish have on occasion been recorded to 300 m depth. They show a preference for turbid inshore areas and harbors, and have a generally hostile attitude and are territorial towards other reef fish.
Many universities in the Indo-Pacific have documented reports of Steroid aggression towards divers and researchers. P. Holsteins and P. miles are native to subtropical and tropical regions from southern Japan and southern Korea to the east coast of Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, French Polynesia, and the South Pacific Ocean.
P. miles is also found in the Indian Ocean, from Sumatra to Sri Lanka and the Red Sea. Two of the twelve species of Steroid, the red lionfish (P. Holsteins) and the common lionfish (P. miles), have established themselves as significant invasive species off the East Coast of the United States and in the Caribbean.
This introduction may have occurred in 1992 when Hurricane Andrew destroyed an aquarium in southern Florida, releasing six lionfish into Biscayne Bay. However, a lionfish was discovered off the coast of Dania Beach, south Florida, as early as 1985, before Hurricane Andrew.
The lionfish resemble those of the Philippines, implicating the aquarium trade. The lionfish may have been purposely discarded by unsatisfied aquarium enthusiasts.
This is in part because lionfish require an experienced aquarium, but are often sold to novices who find their care too difficult. In 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) documented several sightings of lionfish off the coast of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Bermuda, and Delaware.
In August 2014, when the Gulf Stream was discharging into the mouth of the Delaware Bay, two lionfish were caught by a surf fisherman off the ocean side shore of Cape Helped State Park : a red lionfish that weighed 1 pound 4.5 ounces and a common lionfish that weighed 1 pound 2 ounces. Three days later a 1-pound 3 ounce red lionfish was caught off the shore of Roadkill Beach which is in the Delaware Bay approximately 15 miles north of Cape Helped State Park.
In June 2013 lionfish were discovered as far east as Barbados, and as far south as the Los Rogues Archipelago and many Venezuelan continental beaches. Genetic testing on a single captured individual revealed that it was related to the populations found in the Caribbean, suggesting larval dispersal rather than an intentional release.
P. Volitans is the most abundant species of the invasive lionfish population in the Atlantic and Caribbean. Adult lionfish specimens are now found along the United States East Coast from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Florida, and along the Gulf Coast to Texas. They are also found off Bermuda, the Bahamas, and throughout the Caribbean, including the Turks and Pieces, Haiti, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, the Cayman Islands, Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and Tobago, Bonfire, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, Belize, Honduras, Colombia and Mexico.
Steroid species are known for devouring many other aquarium fishes, unusual in that they are among the few fish species to successfully establish populations in open marine systems. Extreme temperatures present geographical constraints in the distribution of aquatic species, indicating temperature tolerance plays a role in the lionfish's survival, reproduction, and range of distribution.
The abrupt differences in water temperatures north and south of Cape Hatteras directly correlate with the abundance and distribution of Steroid. Steroid expanded along the southeastern coast of the United States and occupied thermal-appropriate zones within 10 years, and the shore ward expansion of this thermally appropriate habitat is expected in coming decades as winter water temperatures warm in response to anthropogenic climate change.
Although the timeline of observations points to the east coast of Florida as the initial source of the western Atlantic invasion, the relationship of the United States East Coast and Bahamian lionfish invasion is uncertain. Lionfish can tolerate a minimum salinity of five parts per thousand and even withstand pulses of fresh water, which means they can also be found in estuaries of freshwater rivers.
The lionfish invasion is considered to be one of the most serious recent threats to the Caribbean and Florida coral reef ecosystems. To help address the pervasive problem, in 2015 the NOAA partnered with the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute to set up a lionfish portal to provide scientifically accurate information on the invasion and its impacts.
The lionfish web portal is aimed at all those involved and affected, including coastal managers, educators and the public and the portal was designed as a source of training videos, fact sheets, examples of management plans, and guidelines for monitoring. Lionfish have successfully pioneered the coastal waters of the Atlantic in less than a decade and pose a major threat to reef ecological systems in these areas.
A study comparing their abundance from Florida to North Carolina with several species of groupers found they were second only to the native scamp grouper and equally abundant to the grays by, gag, and rock hind. This could be due to a surplus of resource availability resulting from the overfishing of lionfish predators like grouper.
Although the lionfish has not expanded to a population size currently causing major ecological problems, their invasion in the United States coastal waters could lead to serious problems in the future. One likely ecological impact caused by Steroid could be their impact on prey population numbers by directly affecting food web relationships.
This could ultimately lead to reef deterioration and could negatively influence Atlantic trophic cascade. Lionfish have already been shown to overpopulate reef areas and display aggressive tendencies, forcing native species to move to waters where conditions might be less than desirable.
In July 2011, lionfish were reported for the first time in the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of Louisiana. Sanctuary officials said they believe the species will be a permanent fixture, but hope to monitor and possibly limit their presence.
Since lionfish thrive so well in the Atlantic and the Caribbean due to nutrient-rich waters and lack of predators, the species has spread tremendously. NOAA research loci include investigating biotechnical solutions for control of the population, and understanding how the larvae are dispersed.
Researchers hope to discover what moderates lionfish populations in the Indo-Pacific and apply this information to control the invasive populations, without introducing additional invasive species. There are two new trap designs that have been introduced to help with deep water control of the lionfish.
The traps are low and vertical and remain open the entire time of deployment. The vertical relief of the trap attracts lionfish which makes it easier to catch them.
These new traps are good for catching lionfish without affecting the native species that are ecologically, recreationally, and commercially important to the surrounding areas. These traps are more beneficial than older traps because they limit the potential of catching non-invasive creatures, they have bait that is only appealing to lionfish, they guarantee a catch, and they are easy to transport.
Rigorous and repeated removal of lionfish from invaded waters could potentially control the exponential expansion of the lionfish in invaded waters. A 2010 study showed effective maintenance would require the monthly harvest of at least 27% of the adult population.
Because lionfish are able to reproduce monthly, this effort must be maintained throughout the entire year. Even to accomplish these numbers seems unlikely, but as populations of lionfish continue to grow throughout the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, actions are being taken to attempt to control the quickly growing numbers.
In November 2010, for the first time the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary began licensing divers to kill lionfish inside the sanctuary in an attempt to eradicate the fish. Conservation groups and community organizations in the Eastern United States have organized hunting expeditions for Steroid such as the Environment Education Foundation's 'lionfish derby' held annually in Florida.
Divemasters from Cozumel to the Honduran Bay Islands and at Reef Conservation International which operates in the Padilla Cases Marine Reserve off Junta Golda, Belize, now routinely spear them during dives. However, while diver culling removes lionfish from shallow reefs reducing their densities, lionfish have widely been reported on despotic coral ecosystems (reefs from 30 to 150 m) in the western Atlantic and even in deep-sea habitats (greater than 200 m depth).
Recent studies have suggested that the effects of culling are likely to be depth-specific, and so have limited impacts on these deeper reef populations. Therefore, other approaches such as trapping are advocated for removing lionfish from deeper reef habitats.
Long-term culling has also been recorded to cause behavior changes in lionfish populations. For example, in the Bahamas, lionfish on heavily culled reefs have become more wary of divers and hide more within the reef structure during the day when culling occurs.
While culling by marine protection agencies and volunteer divers is an important element of control efforts, development of market-based approaches, which create commercial incentives for removals, has been seen as a means to sustain control efforts. The foremost of these market approaches is the promotion of lionfish as a food item.
Another is the use of lionfish spines, fins and tails for jewelry and other decorative items. Lionfish jewelry production initiatives are underway in Belize, the Bahamas and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
In 2014 at Sardines de la Ran National Marine Park in Cuba, a diver experimented with spearing and feeding lionfish to sharks in an effort to teach them to seek out the fish as prey. However, by 2016, Cuba was finding it more effective to fish for lionfish as food.
The “Lionfish as Food” campaign encourages human hunting of the fish as the only form of control known to date. Increasing the catch of lionfish could not only help maintain a reasonable population density but also provide an alternative fishing source to overfished populations, such as grouper and snapper.
To promote the campaign, the Roman Catholic Church in Colombia agreed to have their clergy's sermons suggest to their parishioners (84% of the population) eating lionfish on Fridays, Lent and Easter, which proved highly successful in decreasing the invasive fish problem. When properly filleted, the naturally venomous fish is safe to eat.
There has been some concern about the risk of ciguatera food poisoning (CFP) from consumption of lionfish, and the FDA included lionfish on the list of species at risk for CFP when lionfish are harvested in some areas tested positive for ciguatera. However, there have been no verified cases of CFP from consumption of lionfish, and published research has found that the toxins in lionfish venom may be causing false positives in tests for presence of ciguatera.
The Reef Environmental Education Foundation provides advice to restaurant chefs on how they can incorporate the fish into their menus. The NOAA calls the lionfish a “delicious, delicately flavored fish similar in texture to grouper.
Cooking techniques and preparations for lionfish include deep-frying, ceviche, jerky, grilling, and sashimi. ^ a b c d e f g h Whitfield P.E., Hare J.A., David A.W., Charter S.L., Muñoz R.C., Addison C.M.
Satsuma, M. & Motor, H. (2014): Steroid paucispinula, a new species of lionfish (Scorpaenidae: Terminal) from the western Pacific Ocean. “Adrenergic and cholinergic activity contributes to the cardiovascular effects of lionfish (Steroid Holsteins) venom”.
“The western Pacific red lionfish, Steroid Holsteins (Scorpaenidae), in Florida: Evidence for reproduction and parasitism in the first exotic marine fish established in state waters”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Michelson L (1997).
“Experiments and observations on food consumption, growth and starvation in Dendrochirus brachypterus and Steroid Holsteins (Terminal, Scorpaenidae)”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c Morris J.A. Jr., Akins J.L.
“Feeding ecology of invasive lionfish (Steroid Holsteins) in the Bahamian archipelago”. “Invasive red lionfish Steroid Holsteins blow directed jets of water at prey fish ".
(Muraenidae) as natural predators of the lionfish Steroid miles in its native biogeographical range”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Donaldson, T.J., Benzene, D. & Diaz, R. (2010).
“Why are lionfishes (Steroid, Scorpaenidae) so rare in their native ranges?” CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Markovic A., Van Leuven T.E., Cove S.N.
“Predation on the invasive red lionfish, Steroid Holsteins (Pisces: Scorpaenidae), by native groupers in the Bahamas”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Albino, M.A.
“Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish Steroid Holsteins reduce recruitment of the Atlantic coral-reef fishes” (PDF). “Lionfish stalked and devoured by grouper in shocking video”.
(2009): Biology, Ecology, Control and Management of the Invasive Indo-Pacific Lionfish: An Updated Integrated Assessment “. “The sensitivity of the invasive lionfish, Steroid Holsteins, to parasitism in Bonfire, Dutch Caribbean” (PDF).
“An extract of lionfish (Steroid Holsteins) spine tissue contains acetylcholine and a toxin that affects neuromuscular transmission”. Sure, but beware of the nasty toxins” 2012 NBC News ^ a b c Press, Erika; Andradi-Brown, Dominic A.; Woodall, Lucy; Schofield, Pamela J.; Stanley, Karl; Rogers, Alex D. (17 August 2017).
“Growth, site fidelity and grouper interactions of the Red Sea Lionfish, Steroid miles (Scorpaenidae) in its native habitat”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Hammer R.M., Freshwater D.W., Whitfield P.E.
“Mitochondrial monochrome b analysis reveals two invasive lionfish species with strong founder effects in the western Atlantic”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Whitfield, P., Gardner, T., Gives, S.P., Gilligan, M.R., Courtney, W.R. Jr., Ray, G.C.
“The Introduction and Dispersal of the Indo-Pacific Lionfish (Steroid Holsteins) Along the Atlantic Coast of North America”. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (22nd Annual Scientific Diving Symposium).
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Goddard, J. “Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Steroid Holsteins and P. miles) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea”.
^ a b Whitfield P.E., Gardner T., Gives S.P., Gilligan M.R., Courtesy W.R. Jr., Ray G.C., Hare J.A. “Biological invasion of the Indo-Pacific lionfish Steroid Holsteins along the Atlantic coast of North America”.
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Lionfish found here Archived 8 January 2012 at the Payback Machine Nationhood. (2010): Presence of the invasive red lionfish, Steroid Holsteins (Linnaeus, 1758), on the coast of Venezuela, southeastern Caribbean Sea.
^ “University Research Discovers New Alien Species in Maltese Waters”. “Introduced fishes in marine systems and inland seas”.
“Thermal Tolerance and Potential Distribution of Invasive Lionfish (Steroid Holsteins/miles Complex) on the East Coast of the United States”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Grieve B.D., Purchaser E.N., Rykaczewski R.R.
“Range expansion of the invasive lionfish in the Northwest Atlantic with climate change”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Freshwater D.W., Hines A., Par ham S., Wilbur A., About M., Wood head J., Akins L., Purdy B., Whitfield P.E., Paris C.B.
“Mitochondrial control region sequence analyses indicate dispersal from the US East Coast as the source of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish Steroid Holsteins in the Bahamas”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Sham mas, B.
“Palm Beach County girl credited for breakthrough in lionfish research”. ^ “NOAA, Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute launch new lionfish web portal”.
“A stage-based matrix population model of invasive lionfish with implications for control”. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Fraser, Thomas K.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Edwards, Morgan A.; Barry, Savanna C.; Manuring, Carrie M. (1 October 2012).
“Coping with the Lionfish Invasion: Can Targeted Removals Yield Beneficial Effects?”. A.; Flattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael; Bearing, Yvonne; Apeldoorn, Richard; Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Cheaper, Alex D.; Pitt, Joanna M. (1 March 2017).
“Large-scale invasion of western Atlantic despotic reefs by lionfish potentially undermines culling-based management”. ^ a b c Andradi-Brown, Dominic A.; Grey, Rachel; Hendrix, Alicia; Hitcher, Drew; Hunt, Christina L.; Press, Erika; Made, Konrad; Parry, Rachel L.; Régnier-McKellar, Catrina (1 May 2017).
Effect of Repeated Culling on the Behavior of an Invasive Predator”. ^ “Inventive Colombians turn invasive fish problem into dinnertime delicacy”.
^ “Eradicating Invasive Species One Sushi Roll at a Time”. ^ Darryl Fears, Divers try spoon-feeding lionfish to sharks, a method that could come back to bite them, Washington Post, 19 October 2014.
^ Agency Franc Press, Poisonous tropical lionfish could be spreading through Mediterranean, The Guardian, 21 June 2016. “Venomous, invasive lionfish tastes great and is only served at one NYC restaurant”.
It’s a sweet, white flaky fish with a taste similar to a parrot fish or a snapper”, John says. “It’s super healthy, very delicate and tender, and it’s easy to cook it just about any way you can think of.
However, increased demand for this rich source of protein over the years has resulted in significant depletion of the fish stocks, raising concerns that we will not be able to enjoy our fish enters for long if the exploitation continues at the current rate. The alarming rate of depletion is being witnessed across the oceans, with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimating that 70 per cent of the fish population is already fully used, overused or in crisis.
In the UAE, food security being high on the government’s agenda, aquaculture has just begun to find its sea legs, with Shaikh Haman Bin Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Makeup, Crown Prince of Dubai, leading the way with a multi-million Durham private investment. The investment has helped set up a state-of-the-art fish farm in Rebel Ali Free Zone, a hatchery in UMM Al Kuwait and a cage farm off the coast of Funereal and two marine RAS (recirculation aquaculture systems).
According to Jamal Al Shanghai, Managing Director of Fish Farm, the facility is all set to become the biggest contributor to Mecca’s target of producing 100,000 tonnes of fish through aquaculture that will meet the growing shortage in supply. Our aim is to establish aquaculture as an industry in Dubai and help reduce our reliance on imports, which in turn will meet the government’s goal of ensuring food security,” said Al Shanghai, who is steering the nascent facility.
According to Al Shanghai, the fish farm will not only fill a gap in the deficit of supply, but it will also help stabilize the local seafood market by reducing its reliance on dwindling resources. “Weather conditions don’t allow fishing for all 365 days of the year, which triggers price fluctuation.
We also regulate and monitor the oxygen level 24/7 as well as provide high-quality feed that replicate the food the fish eat in the natural environment,” said Lewis, who is at the helm of 78-member team that looks after quality control. The farm is also planning to conduct trials on producing Atlantic salmon in the near future, which will likely trigger a blue revolution.
Luckily, we do have the WWF-EWS in the United Arab Emirates, which has been doing an excellent job of tracking which Gulf fish species are overfished, like the popular Hammer, and which populations are able to rebound quickly enough to make their consumption sustainable. The Sordid Sweet lips, or Canal in Arabic, comes from the Haemulida family that are found in fresh, brackish, and salt water.
They favor reef/rocky and sandy places and typically eat crustaceans and other small fish. If you are anything like me, this Angel fish might just be too cute to eat, but EWS-WWF does have it on their list of sustainable options for the Gulf.
Called Afoot in Arabic and also known as the Red Sea Angelfish, the largest of its species grows up to about 8 inches. The Black Streaked Monocle Bream or Enzyme in the Emirates is an incredible fish.
Though this small image might not be a great indicator, the male can reach up to 10 pounds in size, while the female grows even larger. The female Bream can also live up to 17 years, making it a wonderful, resilient option for fish -eaters in the Emirates and beyond.
Called Faster in Arabic, this fish also likes to huddle around the reef at depths between 2 and 20 meters. Another English name for this fish is the Gold Spotted Really, which can grow to be as large as 2 feet.
Even if you aren’t a lover of the taste of fish, it’s a healthier alternative to red meat. There are always spicy Middle East and North African recipes that will make any fish taste like heaven, even to fussy eaters.