This particular specimen was black with small white spots and had a bluish tinted belly. The Hawaiian grouper has a body which has a standard length that is 2.3 to 2.7 times its depth.
It has an angular properly which has 3-4 enlarged serrations at its angle, with the lowest pointing downwards. The upper margin of the gill cover is convex.
The dorsal fin contains 11 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 9 soft rays. The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are deeply notched.
The adults are dark brown in overall color and are marked with 8 vertical series of faint white spots which are obscured by many extra pale spots and blotches which vary in size. The fins of adults are largely plain and have a similar color to the body apart from a few pale spots along the base part of the dorsal fin.
The Hawaiian grouper is a reversal species which is found on coral and rocky reefs at depths between 20 and 380 meters (66 and 1,247 ft). The spawning season runs from February to June, peaking in March.
The Hawaiian grouper is valued for having clear white flesh which has a delicate flavor. It is regarded as a member of the “Deep 7” group of fish species which live in deep water, near the bottom, and are a valuable resource for fisheries in Hawaii, these species accounting for 50% of the total commercial catch in the State.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF).
This fish is an attack predator with a number of hunting techniques: lying to wait in coral, swimming in mid water, following other predators like eels and octopus and catching their prey if originally missed, and hiding within schools of fish and darting out at unsuspecting prey. Habitat: C. Argus can be found on shallow exposed reefs in warm tropical waters.
It is a protogynous hermaphrodite, meaning it begins life as a female and changes to a male as it matures. It is treatable in humans, but the concern is that ciguatoxin can move up the food chain via bio amplification and spread to other species.
Groupers have large mouths, heavy bodies (they can grow to an enormous size), protruding lower jaw and are usually solitary bottom-dwellers. They are also called sea basses and can be found in shallow waters as well as depths of many hundreds of feet.
This sucks water into their mouths as well as their food, which can be anything from stingrays, lobsters, small fish and even sea turtles. The Giant Grouper has such a large mouth and body that a human could fit into it.
Chef Chris Sherrill: “In case you don’t know, they love their SPAM in Hawaii, and so we are going to do a really cool potato dish with that, but what the keynote is, is this beautiful grouper, right here from the Gulf of Mexico. We are going to crust right in some Hawaiian macadamia nuts.
All we did was grind macadamia nuts with a little pinko bread crumbs. This macadamia oil has got a high cooking temperature, and we are going to sauté this grouper right in that. So you don’t want a lot of burns on that.
We only did this for about 10 to 15 seconds on each side, and we are going to finish this in the oven. So we are going to throw this in a very hot oven and finish it out and in the meantime, we are going to finish up the rest of our other dish.
And over there they use a lot of Maui sweet onions, but we are going to use what we call the green onion whites here. And we’ve cooked off some Yukon Gold potatoes, which we are going to add to that SPAM. We are going to run a line of that sauce down this neat wooden board here and since we’ve got a little of an Asian flare here, we are going to add a little housing in some different spots to this just to give it some extra Hawaiian feel.
So we’ve got Macadamia nut crusted fresh Gulf grouper with a little Poke sauce, wilted squash and zucchini, grilled Romaine and SPAM potatoes for our inspiration from Hawaii.” Remember, for private anglers, Saturday and Sunday you can fish for snapper.
Of the complex, ‘pakapaka and Oneida are the most abundantly harvested by fishermen and highly prized by chefs for their premium texture and mild flavor. Some limited information suggests that juveniles of some of these species may be found in shallower soft sand and mud environments.
This bottom fish complex remains abundant in Hawaiian waters and can continue to be sustainably harvested, according to a 2018 stock assessment. NOAA Fisheries shares management of the Deep 7 bottom fish complex with the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources.
To provide for a sustainable harvest, the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council recommended federal regulations for Deep 7 bottom fish, including an annual catch limit and non-commercial bag limits, vessel marking requirements, a federal non-commercial bottom fish permit, and reporting requirements. The Council recommends, and NOAA Fisheries approves, an annual catch limit for the Deep 7 bottom fish each year.
Seafood dealers, markets, restaurants, and anyone else is prohibited from possessing or selling Deep 7 bottom fish during a fishery closure. Age, growth, longevity, and maturity are important biological parameters for understanding the life history of these species.
This biological information, when combined with an assessment of the fish ’s reproduction, make the life history of ‘pakapaka the most well understood of the Deep 7 bottom fish. These fish may grow similarly to ‘pakapaka, but there is evidence to support faster growth for EU, India, and Levi.
In contrast to the Deep 7 snappers, Hawaiian grouper was recently shown to have quite complex biological characteristics. This species changes sex (female to male) at bigger sizes and older ages and can live longer than 50 years.
The stock assessment process requires reliable sources of data on catch, fishing effort, biology, and abundance. These annual surveys assess the numbers and sizes of bottom fish around the main Hawaiian Islands.
We are committed to cooperative research with local fishermen to build relationships with the community and continually improve the collection of scientific information. Data collected on Fish surveys guides sustainable fisheries and resource management for the Deep 7 species in Hawaii‘i and the overall ecosystem.
ROI or peacock grouper, were introduced into Hawaii in 1956 from Mo'area to add to the food source for Hawaiian fishermen. ROI spend most of their time in deep caves and cracks in the reef where they prey on other fish like allowed, Memphis and Ala'hi.
I also make movies for schools, government agencies and the public about our marine life and invasive species like ROI, ta'ape and to'Au. I have observed several large ROI that seem to stay near the same caves, but they will move when the surf changes or you scare them away.
In Canada Bay from the shore out to one mile I have done over 100 kayak scuba dives and I have speared over 80 ROI of which I sent to UH for testing. This concentration of ROI vs native fish is very dangerous for the long term health of our reefs.
The current test kit for ciguatera is not extremely accurate and cost a lot. If UH could make a good test kit that cost little then fishermen could go back to catching and eating ROI.
Free divers can target certain species without damaging the reef or marine life. I have video of many turtles and sharks with fishhooks and line dangling from their mouths, but free divers do not have this to worry about.
If each free diver would catch 3 ROI on a dive he would save hundreds of reef fish from being eaten! Some scientist claim that ROI take the place of Ulna as a top predator.
If we spent more time and money studying Ulna, UK, Mile and other predators and develop additional plans to increase their populations, then we would be returning our reefs to a healthy state. Using an invasive species to repair a damaged ecosystem rarely if every work! Roi could also carry bacteria that are not native to Hawaiian waters.
I did an underwater movie about Kauai's free divers, and they are very good at what they do, and they understand the ocean and marine life quite well. Rising sea levels, run off, improper building, polluted rivers and over use of certain reefs by tourist cause much more damage to our coastal ecosystem than fishermen do.
As scientist, we need to work with fishermen, divers, surfers, hunters and other native people as they are “the eyes on the reef” we need to learn from and share with. We do not have time to fight over regulations as the sea is changing quickly, and we all need to join together and share our knowledge and efforts.
Grouper is noted for its clear white flesh and is delicate taste. The Queensland grouper is the world’s largest reef-dwelling bony fish.
Adults have mottled brown to dark gray stocky bodies. They are often found either hovering in mid water or resting motionless on the substrate.
This specie sound in the Indo-Pacific and is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Queensland's groupers live in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan, west to the Red Sea, and south to Alga Bay, South Africa.
This large fish is commonly found in shallow waters in or around coral reefs. This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips.
Dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size front to back. Queensland's groupers feed on fishes, including avoids and small sharks, spiny lobsters, crustaceans and juvenile sea turtles.
The Queensland grouper is a solitary, slow-moving fish usually found resting motionless on the substrate or hovering mid water. This species is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN due to overfishing.
Queensland's groupers live in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan, west to the Red Sea, and south to Alga Bay, South Africa. This large fish is commonly found in shallow waters in or around coral reefs.
This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips. Dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size front to back.
Queensland's groupers feed on fishes, including avoids and small sharks, spiny lobsters, crustaceans and juvenile sea turtles. The Queensland grouper is a solitary, slow-moving fish usually found resting motionless on the substrate or hovering mid water.