Manual mincing of trash fish, dry ingredient mix and oils Because of the decreasing price paid for tiger grouper, farmers must find ways to reduce production costs or turn to farming other, higher-value species.
Most important are poor feed conversion (as much as one third to one half of the trash fish is not actually consumed by the cultured fish), its variable nutritional composition, its susceptibility to spoilage because of inappropriate handling practices, risk of disease introduction and significant downstream environmental pollution 1. For the above reasons, there was an urgent need to develop cost-effective and high performing compounded feeds that had less reliance on using trash fish and which would have lower environmental impacts.
There was also a need to test the validity of the market’s perception that cultured tiger grouper were less desirable than wild caught fish. This article outlines the work that was carried out by the Research Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, Indonesia to address these issues.
This research was part of a collaborative project funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research: Project Is/2002/077: “Improved Hatchery and Grow-out Technology for Marine Finish in the Asia-Pacific Region”. The work entailed a controlled sea cage experiment and an on-farm study as an active extension mechanism to gain adoption of rearing tiger groupers on compounded feeds.
A taste panel assessment was commissioned in Hong Kong to compare the eating quality of cultured groupers fed either trash fish or compounded moist and dry feeds. Methods In this controlled sea cage experiment, five diets were compared when fed to juvenile tiger grouper over a 20-week growing period.
Trash fish was minced by passing it through a meat mincer several times and then mixed in with the other ingredients. For Moist P3 diet where no trash fish were used, sufficient water was added to form a dough of approximately 50 per cent dry matter content.
The freshly prepared moist feed was either fed directly or held in a refrigerator for not more than 24 hours. Fish for the experiment had been hatchery reared at the Gondola Mari culture Center and transferred as fingerlings to Rich’s floating net cages at Awe range Bay, South Sulawesi.
The fish were acclimated in a floating net cage for a couple of months. During the acclimatization, the fish were trained to accept moist and dry pelleted feeds.
A total of 240 fish were stratified by weight into three groups of average weights of 234±11.3, 269±11.6 and 318±16.6 g. Five fish from each group were randomly sampled for determination of initial whole body chemical composition. The remaining 225 fish were equally distributed (15 fish/cage) within size groups to 15 net cages of 1×1×2 (depth) m. Throughout the experiment, diets were carefully fed twice daily to apparent satiety.
Manual preparation of noodle (pallet strands) by cold extrusion Since soybean meal has a lower essential amino acid quality than fish meal 2,3,4 and also contains anti-nutritional factors such as antitrypsin and high physic acid 5,6, these factors may have contributed to the poorer performance of fish fed the Moist diet P3.
However, Rachmansyah et al. 7 reported that soybean meal could be used in diets for humpback grouper, Completes actively, at inclusion rates of up to 24 per cent in plant based diets as fish meal replacements without adverse effect provided the feed was supplemented with 0.075 per cent phase. The initial and final whole body chemical composition of fish is shown in Table 4.
However, over the course of the 20-week experiment, there was a uniform increase in lipid content of about 2.5 per cent above that of the initial fish for all diets. It is interesting to note that although the five diets varied considerably in protein and energy contents (Table 2), the fish were able to accommodate these differences in nutrient supply, probably through moderation of appetite, to end up with almost identical final body composition.
There is evidence that fish do have considerable homeostatic capacity to maintain whole body chemical composition within reasonably normal limits 8. It must be recognized that these cost calculations do not take into account any differences in fish survival between diets.
Eating quality of the cultured fish as determined by an independent taste panel in Hong Kong is summarized in Table 6. It is difficult to relate differences in eating quality to chemical composition of the fish given the similarity for all diets (Table 4).
The taste panelists also commented that fish fed Moist P2 were superior in overall eating quality than grouper from Thailand and Taiwan. This study demonstrated that feeding Moist diets P1 and P2 and the commercial Dry P diet were equally good at rearing tiger grouper to market size and of excellent eating quality; surprisingly, fish fed the trash fish were not rated as highly while those fed Moist P3 were considered to be of inferior quality.
The commercial Dry P diet, though slightly more expensive than Moist P2, this extra cost could be more than offset by the convenience of continuity of supply, ease of storage and handling and least environmental impact. However, if tiger grouper have previously been fed on trash fish, they will only accept dry feeds after several days and possibly weeks of adaptation.
The farm was situated at Lagrange Bay, Barry Regency at South Sulawesi. Three of the feeds that had been examined in the controlled sea-cage experiment, namely Moist P1, Dry P and trash fish were compared in this on-farm study.
These feeds were made as described for the controlled sea-cage study and their formulation, chemical composition and cost are shown in Tables 1 to 3, respectively. The fish had been on the Lagrange Bay farm for several months and were accustomed to being fed pelleted feed.
At the conclusion of the experiment, a representative sample of three fish was taken from each cage to determine whole body chemical composition. Although expressing growth as SGR reduces the effect of fish size to some extent, it does not fully compensate for the relative change in metabolic demand as fish increase in size 12.
The initial and final whole body chemical composition of representative fish is shown in Table 7. Based on these results, the commercial dry pellet diet is the best to use because of its storage and handling advantages.
It is recognized that tiger grouper previously fed trash fish may not readily accept a dry pellet diet and may show little or no growth during this period of adaptation. This set back can be avoided by using a moist diet as a transition between feeding trash fish and dry pellet.
The moist feed can be easily made on-farm using simple and inexpensive equipment. Our work has shown that our Moist P2 formulation (Table 1) that contained 25 per cent trash fish (on a DM basis) and 75 per cent of readily available dry ingredients was readily accepted by tiger grouper that had previously been fed only trash fish.
An independent taste panel assessment of the eating quality of tiger grouper fed the moist, commercial dry or trash fish feeds examined in the controlled sea-cage experiment found all diets to be highly acceptable. The authors thank Rent Yulianingsih, Makeup, Ramadan and Rosin, Johannes Taken for their technical and analytical assistance during the study.
This work was part of an Australian Center for International Agriculture Research (ACI AR) project (Is/2002/077) to develop improved hatchery and grow-out technology for grouper aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. The financial support of ACI AR and the technical advice of the Project’s coordinator, Dr Michael Rimmed, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, are gratefully acknowledged.
The effects of substituting selected oil seed protein concentrates for fish meal in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus my kiss diets. Influence of multiple amino acid supplementation son the performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus my kiss (Album), fed soy-based diets.
Effects of phase on bioavailability of phosphorus in soybean meal-based diets for Japanese flounder Paralichthys Olivares. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of phase (IP6) in selected foods.
Substitution of fish meal with soybean meal in humpback grouper, Completes actively, juvenile diets supplemented with phase. Growth response of tiger grouper (Epimetheus fuscoguttatus) fed moist pellet for grow-out in floating net cage.
Just so you know, Track Fishing may earn an affiliate commission from the links on this page, at no extra cost to you. Often considered a classic bottom fish, grouper is one of the most popular species to go after for beginners and experienced anglers alike.
Although heavy reels are not required for inshore fishing with live bait rigs, they don’t hurt. This will allow you to exert more strength and precision when it comes to extracting the grouper from its hiding places.
Shaman TLD 2-Speed Conventional Reel is durable, sturdy, and remarkably powerful. It offers exceptional lever drag, a unique feature that should be praised for numerous reasons.
The Shaman TLD has a unique design that includes a solid graphite frame as well as a side plate with an aluminum spool. Shift gears easily with the two-speed effect of this reel and know that it has a maximum drag of 42 lbs.
A slight upgrade to the Penn Squall series, this reel is not only robust but it’s also durable. The Penn Squall Level Wind is corrosion resistant as it is designed for saltwater.
Corrosion-resistant and perfect for saltwater use Has a large spool capacity A versatile and strong reel You aren’t limited just to grouper when you use this reel, however, as it can also be used for other bottom fish or large species, too.
Built with a solid aluminum frame, this reel is strong, and resists rust and corrosion. The Penn US Senator also has the HT 100 drag system, providing you with all the fishing power you might need.
It can easily land fish past 50 lbs, offering power and user-friendly design. It has a power handle that is comfortable to use and easy to hold along with reversible harness lugs.
It has a durable gear train and is machine framed, making it more resilient and perfectly aligned. You can add a backlight side plate, for instance, to make it perfect for commercial use.
Great for hobby or commercial use Excellent for saltwater use Has six stainless steel bearings Known as the Saliva Lever Saltwater Reel, this product has six separate corrosion-resistant ball bearings.
It performs well on fresh and saltwater, offering greater versatility and strength than some smaller models. A highly capable reel, it can hold a ton of monofilament or braided line.
Is one of the popular types of fish in the market at home and abroad and has a high economic value in South East Asia (Ancient and Maynard, 1991). Currently, grouper fish farming is being developed and promoted as a flagship for marine aquaculture commodities exported with a value high enough.
Common problems in fish farming fish is how to get the seeds that grow fast, low FCR, resistant to various environmental conditions and diseases and morphology were preferred by consumers (Sumantadinata, 1997). In freshwater fish such as carp, tilapia, catfish and ornamental fish, crosses between species to acquire new strains as well as the consumer likes morphology have been carried out since the 70s.
However, in marine fish, especially grouper, efforts like this has been done, only limited genetic search through enzyme and protein analysis depicting profiles of some species of fish to the parameter values of heterozygosity, number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic Loki (Muslim, 1999). Thus, the necessary engineering resources interspecies crosses between several species of grouper that have a high value of hetero sis effect and the nature of the growth, disease resistance and environmental durability.
This method can be a solution of the problems of slow growing grouper. Hybridization is one of the breeding methods in order to obtain new strains that inherit traits from both genetic and morphological and to increase parental heterozygosity.
The higher heterozygosity of a population, the better the properties it owns. Hybridization in fish is relatively easy and can produce a combination of taxonomic variety and wide (Have, 1988).
Growth in the enlargement canting grouper in floating net cages in Pearson. Can survive in brackish water to the sea, the optimum growth salinity 15-33 PPT, with a high density.
Despite the rapid growth of marine finish aquaculture in Asia, feeding with trash fish remains the method of choice in farming marine carnivorous fish such as groupers. The use of trash fish in marine aquaculture has always been associated with environmental degradation, over-exploitation of finite pelagic fish stocks and issues with pathogen transmission (CHO et al., 1994 ; Bacon and Forster, 2003 ; Kim et al., 2007).
Development of cost-effective pelleted feed will greatly contribute to the success and sustainability of the thriving marine finish aquaculture industry in Asia. Currently, there is very limited published information comparing the growth performance of farmed groupers fed pelleted feeds versus trash fish.
The substitution of fish meal and fish oil by alternative protein and lipid sources to reduce the cost of feeding and to improve aquaculture sustainability has yielded good results (Rodriguez-Serna et al., 1996 ; Essayed, 1998 ; NG, 2002). In carnivorous marine fish species, more success has been achieved when animal by-product sources are used as alternatives to fish meal compared to plant protein sources (Vegas et al., 1999 ; Ham et al., 2007).
The findings from our previous trials indicated that Poultry By-products Meal (IBM) and plant oil such as palm oil can be successfully used as alternative dietary protein and lipid sources, respectively, in feeds formulated for the humpback grouper (Chapati et al., 2007, 2008). These and other findings obtained from our laboratory trials were used as the basis for the prototype feed formulation used in the present study.
The trash fish used in the present study was the locally available sardine, Salmonella SPP. Whole raw trash fish were minced using a meat mincer before feeding to the experimental humpback grouper fingerlings.
Fish and feeding: Weaned stock of humpback grouper, Completes actively, fingerlings were obtained from a local hatchery. Fingerlings of mean initial body weight 4.1±0.1 g were randomly distributed into groups of 20 fish in fiberglass tanks (300 L) with a flow-through water system.
Each experimental feed was fed close to apparent satiation by hand twice a day to triplicate groups of fish. Fish were individually weighed at the start and end of the feeding trial and bulk-weighed fortnightly.
Muscle tissue from five fish per tank was dissected, pooled and stored frozen at -86 °C for subsequent chemical analysis. The remaining fish were pooled and stored frozen for subsequent whole-body composition analysis.
Samples of fish whole body, liver, muscle and experimental feeds were oven-dried and ground into powder before proximate analysis following methods described by ADAC (1990). Amino acid analysis: Ingredient and feed samples were hydrolyzed in duplicate with 6 N HCl at 110 °C for 24 h and derivatized with ACC reagent (6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimdyl carbonite, Waters, Massachusetts, USA) before chromatographic separation using an AccQ×Tag reversed phase (3.9×150 mm) analytical column (Waters, Massachusetts, USA).
The HPLC system and quantification of chromatographic peaks were previously described by Chapati et al. Tryptophan was determined by a fluorescence detector (wavelength excitation 285 nm, emission 345 nm) using the reverse phase HPLC technique after sample preparation using alkaline digestion (Must et al., 2004).
The lipid extract was then fractionized by a short column filled with silica gel 60 F254 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) with mesh size of 0.063-0.2 mm in a humane:ethyl acetate solvent system (9:1, v/v). The extract was purified using the silica gel column system before the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed in a gas chromatograph (Shimizu GC-2010, Shimizu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan), equipped with a flame ionization detector and an autoinjector.
Data expressed as ratios and percentages were subjected to arc-sine transformation prior to statistical analysis. This was due to the higher level of politic acid (C16:0) in Farmed 1 as a result of added crude palm oil.
In contrast, feeds Farmed 1 and Farmed 2 contained slightly higher total n-6 fatty acid s. The trash fish used in the present study was characterized by a relatively high level of docosahexaenoic acid, C22:6n3. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the growth performance of fish fed the Farmed 1 feed or Competed 2.
Dry matter FCR ranged from 1.3 to 2.4 in fish fed pelleted feeds. Body indices and proximate composition : Fish condition factor was not affected by the dietary treatments (Table 4).
Table 3: Growth performance, feed utilization and survival rate of humpback grouper fingerlings fed pelleted feeds or trash fishcakes with different superscript within row are significantly different (p<0.05)Table 4: Body indices and whole body composition of humpback grouper fed pelleted feeds or trash fishcakes with different superscript within row are significantly different (p<0.05)Table 5: Muscle fatty acid composition (% total fatty acid s) of humpback grouper fed pelleted feeds or trash fish SEM: Standard errors mean, Values with different superscript within row are significantly different (p<0.05)However, there was a trend for increased Vs in fish offered the commercial feeds. The proximate composition of fish fed different types of feeds is shown in Table 4.
Muscle DHA (C20:6n-3) levels was highest in humpback groupers fed trash fish. It was observed that muscle of fish fed Farmed 2 had a balanced proportion of total n-3 and n-6, giving an n-3/n-6 ratio of 1.
Higher levels of politic acid (C16:0) was observed in fish fed FarmFeed1 compared to other groups as a result of palm oil addition in the feed. However, it is important to note that Farmed 1 contained some portion of crude palm oil which made the feed contain higher total saturates and lower Puff compared to Farmed 2.
The difference in growth between fish fed the Farmed 1 and Farmed 2 test feeds could be due to differences in the dietary fatty acid profile since diet proximate and amino acid compositions are similar. The performance of Competed 2 in the present study is consistent with the findings by Williams et al.
(2004) which reported reduced appetite and no growth benefit when dietary lipid level was increased above 150 g kg -1 in the feed of humpback grouper. Nevertheless, fish fed Competed 1 gave the lowest feed intake of all dietary groups.
It is known that Competed 1 was specifically formulated for sea bass (Later Calcasieu) but currently marketed as a generic marine fish feed. However, methionine and lysine were reported as the limiting amino acid s in PBM-based feeds (Chapati et al., 2007 ; Gaylord and Rales, 2005).
Lysine level in feeds Farmed 1 and Farmed 2 (5.5 and 5.3 g/100 g amino acid, respectively) were comparable to the levels in commercial feeds (5.6-5.8 g/100 g amino acid, respectively). As expected, higher level of methionine and lysine were observed in trash fish (4.0 and 8.6 g/100 g amino acid, respectively) compared to the pelleted feeds on a dry weight basis.
The trash fish used in the present study contained high levels of protein (701 g kg -1 and DHA (21.5% of total fatty acid), similar to the trash fish profile (710 g kg -1 protein and 23.2% DHA) reported by Naval et al. Unlike pelleted feed, trash fish break up into small pieces when eaten.
The humpback groupers showed symptoms of fin rot and skin lesions towards the end of the experimental period. In the present study, trash fish was prepared by blending the whole-fish including head and gut content to form a homogenous dough before being hand fed to the humpback grouper fingerlings.
There is a possibility of bacteria originating from the gut contents of the trash fish that contributed towards the infection. Thus, removing the gut content of trash fish might be able to minimize some problems related to disease outbreaks and potential vitamin deficiencies in grouper farming.
Higher heat and viscero-somatic indices were observed in fish fed the commercial feeds. Poor growth of fish fed Competed 1 as a result of lower protein content and palatability of the feed probably had contributed to a higher value of CSI of in this treatment.
The high deposition of body fat indicated that the dietary lipid level in Competed 2 was in excess and was not utilized by the fish for energy. This agrees with our previous findings whereby feed compositions were observed to have relatively little effect on the whole-body protein of humpback groupers (Chapati et al., 2007, 2008).
The muscle fatty acid profile of humpback grouper in the present study showed a very strong influence from the dietary fatty acid profile with the possible exception of saturated fatty acid s. Muscle total saturates were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. The minimal impact of feeds on saturated fatty acids in fish tissues was also observed in our previous study (Chapati et al., 2008) and by other researchers (Greene and Selivonchick, 1990 ; NG et al., 2001).
The suggested optimal dietary nebula for humpback grouper was reported to be 1.5-2.0% of the feeds (Surya and Girl, 2005). In conclusion, the findings of the present study will contribute towards reducing the marine fish farmers dependency on trash fish as the main feed input and further contributes towards the sustainability of the thriving grouper aquaculture industry.
We would like to thank Dr. Asia Karim and Mr. Ismail Moot (Department of Veterinary Services, Malaysia) for their assistance in amino acid analysis. If you're looking for a simple recipe to simplify your weeknight, you've come to the right place--easy dinners are our specialty.
03/03/2006 Made with 1.25 lbs fish, based on reviews: doubled seasoning using Old Bay instead of paprika, halved butter (LOVE butter and still only used half). Bake 350 for 10, then broil for 2.5 each side.
Be sure to turn when broiling as the browning gives a nice texture and crunch. The only changes I made were to substitute garlic powder for the garlic salt and I added a bit of dill and a bit of salt-free lemon pepper to the spice mix.
I added some fresh squeezed lime juice (from a quarter of a leftover lime) in with the lemon juice/butter. I loved the mayo/paprika topping too and added some fresh chopped parsley over the fish.
06/25/2012 I have been trying to build my repertoire of fish recipes, so after reading the first 10 reviews on this one, I decided to try it. Like most reviewers, I halved the butter (I only had 3 grouper files).
My husband brought this home from a deep sea fishing trip, and we used this recipe. I asked him the next day to cook it again.
Grouper is similar in flavor to bass and halibut: very mild, but firm enough to cook in a grill pan. Since grouper fillets can be pricier, we highlight this fresh fish by preparing it with simple ingredients like butter beans, jicama, cucumber and collard greens.
Try Jacques Pepin’s recipe, served with black bean sauce and simmered vegetables, or our Asian-inspired version, which features a soy-mustard dressing and a crispy pan-fried fillet. 1 When it comes to eating well, star chef Bobby Flay champions the tried-and-true method of cooking fish in parchment.
He likes serving the grouper with a quick and punchy citrus sauce and a briny “martini” relish made with olives. The grouper represents the coast, while the creamy butter beans, tomato and dill exemplify the seasonal bounty.
This dish was inspired by the delicious local grouper Jacques Pepin picks up at the beach when the fishermen return with their catch. Here, the skinned fillets are steamed over a bed of simmering local vegetables, including a die of juicy jicama, which Jacques usually adds raw to salads for a cool crunch.