Grouper Edit

Maria Johnson
• Thursday, 08 October, 2020
• 18 min read

Section 1886(d) of the Act specifies that the Secretary shall establish a classification system (referred to as Dogs) for inpatient discharges and adjust payments under the IPS based on appropriate weighting factors assigned to each DRG. Therefore, under the IPS, we pay for inpatient hospital services on a rate per discharge basis that varies according to the DRG to which a beneficiary's stay is assigned.

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Congress recognized that it would be necessary to recalculate the DRG relative weights periodically to account for changes in resource consumption. Accordingly, section 1886(d)(4)(C) of the Act requires that the Secretary adjust the DRG classifications and relative weights at least annually.

Currently, cases are classified into Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (Madras) for payment under the IPS based on the following information reported by the hospital: the principal diagnosis, up to 24 additional diagnoses, and up to 25 procedures performed during the stay. In a few Madras, classification is also based on the age, sex, and discharge status of the patient.

Effective October 1, 2015, the diagnosis and procedure information is reported by the hospital using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS). For additional information on the MS-DRG system, including yearly reviews and changes to the Madras, please view prior Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPS) proposed and final rules located in the left navigational area of this page.

CMS is hosting a listening session that will describe the Medicare-Severity Diagnosis-Related Group (MDR) Complication and Comorbidity (CC)/Major Complication and Comorbidity (MCC) Comprehensive Analysis discussed in the FY 2020 Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPS) proposed and final rules. This listening session will include review of the methodology to measure the impact on resource use and will provide an opportunity for CMS to receive public input on this analysis and to address any clarifying questions in order to assist the public in formulating written comments on the current severity level designations for consideration for FY 2021 rule making.

Under the Hopes version of the Madras developed for this requirement, to the extent feasible, the MS-DRG assignment for a given service furnished to an outpatient (billed using a Hopes code) is as similar as possible to the MS-DRG assignment for that service if furnished to an inpatient (billed using an ICD-10-PCS code). The HCPCS-MS-DRG definitions manual and software developed under the requirements of section 15001 of the 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114–255).

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Assign grouper privileges service Accepts one subject, one privilege type and name, if allowed, and one group or stem lookup Documentation: (click on assignGrouperPrivileges), (click on assignGrouperPrivileges) For REST, a request body is required (probably via POST) REST request (colon is escaped to %3A): PUT (or POST) / grouper AWS/servicesRest/v1_4_000/grouperPrivileges (see documentation above for details): Request object, response object Response codes Samples (all files with “Lite” in them, click on “download” to see file) These topics are discussed in the Grouper Loader” training series.

It also runs background tasks even if you aren't automatically loading groups. The easiest way is to set the grouper -loader.properties key loader.autoadd.typesAttributes to true.

GrouperLoaderType : there will be various types to choose from, currently only these are available : SQL_SIMPLE is a group whose membership is fed from a query, and the whole query's results will be the groups results (not incremental). GrouperLoaderDbName : if it is a SQL based type, this is the name in the grouper -loader.properties of the db connection properties.

Note that a job will not start if a previous run has not finished. GrouperLoaderQuery : This is the query to run in the DB, which must have certain columns required or optional based on the grouperLoaderType.

If your DB supports views, might not be a bad idea to link query up to a view so you can easily see what it will return and change it without affecting the group attribute. SQL_GROUP_LIST requires a group_name column in query, grouperLoaderQuartzCron : If a Iron schedule type, this is the iron setting string from the quartz product to run a job daily, hourly, weekly, etc: http://www.opensymphony.com/quartz/wikidocs/TutorialLesson6.html grouperLoaderIntervalSeconds : If a START_TO_START_INTERVAL schedule type, this is the number of seconds between the start of one run to the start of another run.

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Note, for daily jobs, it is probably better to use iron so it won't fire up each time the loader is restarted. The reason this enhancement exists is, so we can do an SQL_GROUP_LIST query and attach addIncludeExclude to the groups.

Note: the parent stem display names are only changed when creating them. If there is a column named any of the following: readers, viewers, admins, updates, options, op touts, group_attr_readers, group_attr_updates, then the data in the column (comma separated subjected's or subjectIdentifers (which can include group names) will be assigned to that privilege list.

This will kick off as a command line program that you will want to run as a service. Note that as of Grouper 2.3, if you create a new loader job, you can have it scheduled without restarting the daemon by using an option in the New UI.

If you're an admin of the group, under “More actions”, there's an option named “Schedule loader process”. Misc You can set transaction level in the grouper -loader.properties.

It defaults to not use transaction since for huge groups, you might have memory or db problems By default only wheel group members can edit the grouperLoader type or attributes. You can edit these settings in the grouper.properties in the type security part.

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Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus lanceolatus Synonyms Holocentrus lanceolatus Bloch, 1790 Promiscuous lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) Serra nus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) Serra nus geographic us Valentines, 1828 Serra nus abdominal is Peters, 1855 Barracks gigs Gunther, 1869 Rigorous Goliath DE Vi's, 1882 Serra nus phaeostigmaeus Fowler, 1907 Stereolepoides Thompson Fowler, 1923 The giant grouper has a robust body which has a standard length equivalent to 2.4 to 3.4 times its depth.

The dorsal profile of the head and the intraorbital area are convex, The properly has a rounded corner and a finely serrated margin. The gill cover has a convex upper margin.

The adults are greyish-brown in color overlain with a mottled pattern and with darker fins. The giant grouper can grow to huge size with the maximum recorded standard length being 270 centimeters (110 in), although they are more common around 180 centimeters (71 in).

And a maximum published weight of 400 kilograms (880 lb). The giant grouper is a species of shallow water and can be found at depths of 1 to 100 meters (3.3 to 328.1 ft).

Large specimens have been caught from shore and in harbors. They are found in caves and in wrecks while the secretive juveniles occur in reefs and are infrequently observed.

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The adults are mainly solitary and hold territories on the outer reef and in lagoons. They have also been caught in turbid water over silt or mud sea beds by prawn fishermen.

The giant grouper is an opportunistic ambush predator which feeds on a variety of fishes, as well as small sharks, juvenile sea turtles, crustaceans and mollusks which are all swallowed whole. Fish which inhabit coral reefs and rocky areas favor spiny lobsters as prey and 177 centimeters (70 in) specimen taken of Maui in Hawaii had a stomach contents of two spiny lobsters and a number of crabs.

Fish living in estuaries environments in South Africa were found to be feeding almost exclusively on the crab Scylla errata. They are, however, curious and frequently approach divers closely.

They are not generally considered dangerous to humans but divers are advised to treat large specimens with caution and not to hand feed them. They are aggregate broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male.

Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring. Giant groupers are diabetic protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that although some males develop from reproductively functional females other males start to produce sperm without ever having gone through a phase as a reproductive female.

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The giant grouper is a highly valued food fish and is taken by both commercial and recreational fisheries. As well as the consumption of its flesh its skin, gall bladder and stomach are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

It is valued in Hong Kong as a live fish for the live reef food fish trade, especially smaller specimens. This species is cultured in agriculture and this practice is widespread but there is a restricted supply of juveniles, although hatcheries in Taiwan have produced captive bred juveniles, exporting some for to be grown on in other parts of South-East Asia.

Many of the fish produced in aquaculture are hybrids between this species and E. fuscoguttatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

“A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus)”. ^ Peter Palma; Akihito Nakamura; Garden XYZ Libunaoa; et al. (2019).

Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.

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In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.

Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.

They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.

They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.

They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.

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In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.

The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.

Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.

Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.

If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.

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The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.

Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.

Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.

Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.

In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.

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In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).

^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.

“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.

^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.

Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.

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A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.

Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.

Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.

^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.

^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.

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Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “. Here customers can read about the available web services and web tools as well as download sample implementations. Access Management allows customers to add new authorized sites, edit existing authorized sites and generate certificates for authorized sites to gain access to 3M Grouper Plus Content Services.

Customers can use the tool to process a claim and verify that the results match what is being returned in their web service response. Usage Reports allows customers to view their usage of 3M Grouper Plus Content Services. Customers can use the tool to view graphical and tabular displays of transaction data.

To make Mayonnaise: Whisk egg yolks, mustard, and lemon juice together in a medium bowl until smooth and light. In a very slow steady stream whisk in the oil, a drop at a time, until mixture starts to thicken.

Stir in green onions, garlic and 4 teaspoons Creole seasoning and cook for 1 minute. Remove skillet from heat and turn vegetables into a bowl and allow cooling.

Gently fold in grouper pieces, taking care not to break up lumps. Add fish cakes and fry until browned about 2 to 3 minutes on each side (flip them gently, they are delicate).

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Serve with a squeeze of lemon, a dollop of Mother's Mayonnaise and a cold beer. For an appetizer make them smaller, simply adjust the cooking time.

To make Mayonnaise: Whisk egg yolks, mustard, and lemon juice together in a medium bowl until smooth and light. In a very slow steady stream whisk in the oil, a drop at a time, until mixture starts to thicken.

Use immediately or store in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 2 days. Stir in green onions, garlic and 4 teaspoons Creole seasoning and cook for 1 minute.

Remove skillet from heat and turn vegetables into a bowl and allow cooling. Gently fold in grouper pieces, taking care not to break up lumps.

Add fish cakes and fry until browned about 2 to 3 minutes on each side (flip them gently, they are delicate). Serve with a squeeze of lemon, a dollop of Mother's Mayonnaise and a cold beer.

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Disclaimer: Nutrition facts are derived from linked ingredients (shown at left in colored bullets) and may or may not be complete. 06/21/2010 The sauce is great with asparagus as well.

I reduced the flour by half and marinated the grouper with salt pepper and hot pepper sauce. For a great dinner try steamed asparagus with slivered almonds fresh corn on the cob and Loaded baked potatoes.

This dish I loved and my husband said it was one of the best ever, and he also eats out at great restaurants. I didn't modify much just added a little parsley for the color a little less salt for health and since I didn't have lemon pepper I added a little more lemon and pepper.

10/26/2014 I made this with Tilapia because that's what I had on hand at my parents house. I also made it for a couple of people that don't really like fish, and they loved it.

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1 www.boatus.com - https://www.boatus.com/expert-advice/expert-advice-archive/2020/april/fishing-for-goliath-groupers
2 sportfishinglures.com - https://sportfishinglures.com/goliath-grouper-where-and-how-to-catch-them/