1 First recorded in 1680–90, grouper is from the Portuguese word Garuda, of uncertain origin A member of a group of usually young and single persons who rent and share a house or apartment, as at a summer resort.
Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca.
In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'. However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “.
Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine. Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth.
They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx.
They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed.
They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills. The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language.
In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku. In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes. Jordan, 1923 Tribe Epinephrine Sleeker, 1874 Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904 Affected Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Anyperodon Gunther, 1859 Cephalopods Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Chromites Swanson, 1839 Dermatologist Gill, 1861 Epimetheus Bloch, 1793 Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862 Graciela Randall, 1964 Hyporthodus Gill, 1861 Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 Paranoia Guillemot, 1868 Plectropomus Pen, 1817 Scotia J.L.B.
Smith, 1964 Trio Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989 Various Swanson, 1839 The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females.
Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “. You can help confirm this entry by contributing facts, media, and other evidence of notability and mutation.
Meme Status Submission Type: Exploitable Year Unknown Origin Unknown Tags Pepe the frog, twitter, exploitable, new right, wrong think, big dog grouper, savings, depressing midget, that_groyper, Nicholas j. Fuentes, charlie Kirk, Benny Johnson, edwardbchang Additional References Twitter Grouper refers to an exploitable illustration of Pepe the Frog resting his chin on interlinked hands, variations of which are commonly used as profile avatars among the alt-right and new right on Twitter and the alternative social networking service Wrongdoing. The earliest known variation of the Pepe illustration was submitted to a thread on 4chan's /v/ board on March 25th, 2016 (shown below).
On July 28th, YouTuber Savings uploaded a video titled “Grouper Mesmerizes you to sleep.” Editor depressing midget posted a variation of Grouper merged with the character Kojak to /r/Kojak (shown below, left).
That month, the that_grouper Twitter feed was launched, which highlights exploitable variations of the illustration (shown below, middle, right). Over the next month, Twitter accounts appearing to post content in favor of the alt-right began using photoshop variations of the Pepe illustration as their profile avatar.
Those targeted, mocked and/or trolled by the group include Ben Shapiro, Charlie Kirk, Dan Crenshaw, Trump Jr. and an American conservative nonprofit organization Turning Point USA. On October 29th, 2019, a Turning Point USA event at the Ohio State University was sabotaged by a several attendee who asked Turning Point USA founder Charlie Kirk provocative, anti-Israel, racist and homophobic questions, including a question referencing Dancing Israelis.
On the same day, Turning Point USA CCO Benny Johnson tweeted about the trolling questions (shown below, left), with Groupers leader Nicholas J. Fuentes responding on Twitter (shown below, right). On October 30th, 2019, Twitter user @EdwardBChang made the first tweet referring to this and previous actions taken by Groupers against TP USA as “Grouper War”, with the tweet receiving over 60 retweets and 460 likes.
In the following days, more Twitter accounts associated with the movement made tweets referring to Grouper Army's actions against TS UPA as “Grouper War” including tweets by the movement leader Nicholas J. Fuentes. A person who changes gender or sexual orientation later in life much like the way that a grouper can change sexes after maturity but never in a hot coed porno kind of way.
“I can't believe my wife of 20 years went grouper on me and started banging' bull-dikes” A term coined by Donald Trump on his show The Apprentice even though bosses used it all the time before.
Now anyone who watched five minutes of it thinks it's THE ABSOLUTE SHIT and uses it to say “YOU SUCK!” Likes all posts on social media by people considered popular.
Groupers can be characterized by loving their ferns, their country, animals and God. Groupers are very well versed in history and have no trouble questioning established historical or political sentiments when the logic/facts behind them are proven to be false.
“Hey groupers, what's the deal with the USS Liberty and the Dancing Israelis anyway?” Not to be confused with Pepe the frog, they are their own subcategory of paleo conservatives.
Every once in a while it is useful to take a step back and look at pandas’ functions and see if there is a new or better way to do things. I was recently working on a problem and noticed that pandas had a Grouper function that I had never used before.
I looked into how it can be used and it turns out it is useful for the type of summary analysis I tend to do on a frequent basis. In addition to functions that have been around a while, pandas continues to provide new and improved capabilities with every release.
The updated AGG function is another very useful and intuitive tool for summarizing data. This article will walk through how and why you may want to use the Grouper and AGG functions on your own data.
Pandas’ origins are in the financial industry so it should not be a surprise that it has robust capabilities to manipulate and summarize time series data. Just look at the extensive time series documentation to get a feel for all the options.
These strings are used to represent various common time frequencies like days vs. weeks vs. years. For example, if you were interested in summarizing all the sales by month, you could use the resample function.
Instead of having to play around with reindexing, we can use our normal group by syntax but provide a little more info on how to group the data in the date column: Since group by is one of my standard functions, this approach seems simpler to me and it is more likely to stick in my brain.
The nice benefit of this capability is that if you are interested in looking at data summarized in a different time frame, just change the freq parameter to one of the valid offset aliases. If your annual sales were on a non-calendar basis, then the data can be easily changed by modifying the freq parameter.
When dealing with summarizing time series data, this is incredibly handy. It is certainly possible (using pivot tables and custom grouping) but I do not think it is nearly as intuitive as the pandas approach.
In pandas 0.20.1, there was a new AGG function added that makes it a lot simpler to summarize data in a manner similar to the group by API. Fortunately we can pass a dictionary to AGG and specify what operations to apply to each column.
I find this approach really handy when I want to summarize several columns of data. In the past, I would run the individual calculations and build up the resulting data frame a row at a time.
The aggregate function using a dictionary is useful but one challenge is that it does not preserve order. Section 1886(d) of the Act specifies that the Secretary shall establish a classification system (referred to as Dogs) for inpatient discharges and adjust payments under the IPS based on appropriate weighting factors assigned to each DRG.
Therefore, under the IPS, we pay for inpatient hospital services on a rate per discharge basis that varies according to the DRG to which a beneficiary's stay is assigned. Congress recognized that it would be necessary to recalculate the DRG relative weights periodically to account for changes in resource consumption.
Accordingly, section 1886(d)(4)(C) of the Act requires that the Secretary adjust the DRG classifications and relative weights at least annually. Currently, cases are classified into Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (Madras) for payment under the IPS based on the following information reported by the hospital: the principal diagnosis, up to 24 additional diagnoses, and up to 25 procedures performed during the stay.
In a few Madras, classification is also based on the age, sex, and discharge status of the patient. Effective October 1, 2015, the diagnosis and procedure information is reported by the hospital using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS).
For additional information on the MS-DRG system, including yearly reviews and changes to the Madras, please view prior Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPS) proposed and final rules located in the left navigational area of this page. CMS is hosting a listening session that will describe the Medicare-Severity Diagnosis-Related Group (MDR) Complication and Comorbidity (CC)/Major Complication and Comorbidity (MCC) Comprehensive Analysis discussed in the FY 2020 Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPS) proposed and final rules.
This listening session will include review of the methodology to measure the impact on resource use and will provide an opportunity for CMS to receive public input on this analysis and to address any clarifying questions in order to assist the public in formulating written comments on the current severity level designations for consideration for FY 2021 rule making. Proposed ICD-10 MS-DRG Definitions Manual Files V38 (ZIP) : A zip file with the ICD-10 MS DRG Definitions Manual (Text Version) contains the complete documentation of the proposed ICD-10 MS-DRG Grouper logic.
The 21st Century Cures Act requires that by January 1, 2018, the Secretary develop an informational “Hopes version” of at least 10 surgical Madras. Under the Hopes version of the Madras developed for this requirement, to the extent feasible, the MS-DRG assignment for a given service furnished to an outpatient (billed using a Hopes code) is as similar as possible to the MS-DRG assignment for that service if furnished to an inpatient (billed using an ICD-10-PCS code).
I also changed the key to be of_final.index.name but that also resulted in Karroo: 'The grouper name Time is not found' After some investigation with the aid of Jezebel it looks like the issue is in the plot method.
This version 5.00 Final, effective October 1, 2020, replaces the v5.00 Beta posted previously. This second beta release addresses the issue encountered by Vent era in regard to error code 9.
A Beta test release of CMG version 5.00 is now available to assist providers and vendors in the transition of the program from DLL to Java JAR. The prior CMG and DLL Versions were both 4.01, allowing processing of IRFA assessments with discharge date on or after 4/1/2020.
It uses the Quality Indicator items, incorporates an unweighted motor score calculation, contains revised case-mix groups, and updates the ICD-10-CM codes used by the CMG grouper. NOTE: During the beta testing, there were errors in the DLL for low motor score values documented in Appendix E. These errors were corrected for the final release.
This new version incorporates revisions to the list of comorbidities used by the CMG grouper. This new version incorporates revisions to the list of comorbidities used by the CMG grouper.
This new version incorporates a correction to the handling of comorbidities by the CMG grouper. The test data files posted with the original CMG 2.81 package are flawed.
Comorbidity Tier assignment is made on the basis of the presence of specific single ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes and on the basis of specific ICD-10-CM code combinations. The only changes with the final version of CMG 2.70 (from the previous draft version) is to remove the word “Draft” from the file names and documentation headers of “Technical documentation.pdf” and Program documentation.pdf”.
The major change with draft version of CMG 2.70, from the current version CMG 2.60, is to accommodate the expansion of the comorbidities (Item 24 on the IRFA) from a maximum of 10 ICD-9 codes to a maximum of 25 ICD-9 codes. CMG V2.70 Corrected XML Test Data (ZIP) : In the XML test data included with the CMG 2.70 package, an incorrect format has been used for Item 24 comorbidities that are skipped.
The data specifications require a skipped comorbidity to be coded as a single caret but the test data has been coded as a caret with trailing blanks . These errors have been corrected in a new XML test data file (CM1F15V9 xml.zip) now available for download.