This particular specimen was black with small white spots and had a bluish tinted belly. The Hawaiian grouper has a body which has a standard length that is 2.3 to 2.7 times its depth.
It has an angular properly which has 3-4 enlarged serrations at its angle, with the lowest pointing downwards. The upper margin of the gill cover is convex.
The dorsal fin contains 11 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 9 soft rays. The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are deeply notched.
The adults are dark brown in overall color and are marked with 8 vertical series of faint white spots which are obscured by many extra pale spots and blotches which vary in size. The fins of adults are largely plain and have a similar color to the body apart from a few pale spots along the base part of the dorsal fin.
The Hawaiian grouper is a reversal species which is found on coral and rocky reefs at depths between 20 and 380 meters (66 and 1,247 ft). The spawning season runs from February to June, peaking in March.
The Hawaiian grouper is valued for having clear white flesh which has a delicate flavor. It is regarded as a member of the “Deep 7” group of fish species which live in deep water, near the bottom, and are a valuable resource for fisheries in Hawaii, these species accounting for 50% of the total commercial catch in the State.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF).
Islam Cocos SUR, Panama The Pacific goliathgrouper has a robust, oblong body. The margin of the properly has fine serrations and an angled edge.
The head and body are gray or greenish marked with pale blotches and small dark spots which are scattered over the upper head and body, as well as being on the pectoral fins. Subadult fish which are less than 100 centimeters (39 in) in length are overall greenish to tawny brown with diagonal, irregular darker brown bars on the body and caudal fin.
The juveniles have heavy spotting on the head, the portrayed part of the dorsal fin and the pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins, They have 5 diagonal black bars on the body which reach onto the dorsal and anal fins and there is a black bar on base of the caudal fin. This is one of the largest species of grouper, attaining a maximum total length of 250 centimeters (98 in).
The Pacific goliathgrouper is found on offshore rocky reefs as adults, although it has also been recorded in inshore areas. The juveniles inhabit mangroves, estuaries, lagoons and bays.
It has been recorded feeding on sharks, rays, crustaceans, cephalopods, other fishes and even sea snakes and mammals. Little is known about its biology but it is thought to be similar to the Atlantic goliathgrouper.
The Pacific goliathgrouper is a sought after quarry species for recreational and commercial fisheries in the entirety of its range. It has declined over much of its range, and, in Colombia smaller Goliath groupers of lengths less than 30 centimeters (12 in) are regarded as the most valuable.
This leads fishermen to target small and sexually immature groupers which threatens the local survival of the species by taking the fish they get an opportunity to reproduce. ^ a b c Free, Trainer and Paul, Daniel, eds.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). Goliath Pacific groupers under threat in a biodiversity hotspot”.
Alex Newton covers his face as he stands near dead fish at a boat ramp in Bradenton Beach, Fla. From Naples in Southwest Florida, about 135 miles north, beach communities along the Gulf coast have been plagued with red tide. A toxic algae bloom has overrun Florida’s southern Gulf Coast this summer, devastating sea life and driving people from the water.
Stretching about 150 miles (240 kilometers), it’s affecting communities from Naples in the south to Anna Maria Island in the north and appears to be moving northward. The algae turn the water toxic for marine life, and in recent weeks beach goers have been horrified to find turtles, large fish like goliathgrouper and even manatees wash up dead.
In late July, a 26-foot long (8-meter-long) whale shark washed ashore on Daniel Island, which is known for its pristine beaches. This week, nine dead dolphins were found in Sarasota County, and marine biologists are investigating whether the deaths are related to red tide.
More than 450 stranded and dead sea turtles have been recovered in four affected counties this year, and the institute estimates that 250 to 300 died from red tide poisoning. It makes you throw up,” said Holmes Beach resident Alex Newton, who has lived in the area for decades.
Red tide is a natural occurrence that happens due to the presence of nutrients in the water and an organism called a dinoflagellate. Another algae problem plagues Florida’s waterways, Murasaki said, and confused and frustrated people are conflating the two.
That water contained the blue-green algae, and the bright green sludge oozed onto docks, dams and rivers. “We get a lot of Europeans this time of year and even people from the Midwest are still coming down because school hasn’t started yet.
As he spoke, a worker nearby cleared away dead fish littering the small beach near the patio. For Charlotte County resident Magdalena Gossip, Saturday was her birthday, when she usually goes to the beach to celebrate.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus Tamara The Atlantic goliathgrouper or Tamara (Epimetheus Tamara), also known as “Jewish”, is a large saltwater fish of the grouper family found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths from 5 to 50 m (16 to 164 ft).
Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast. On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts.
In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal. Young Atlantic goliathgrouper may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers.
They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb). The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961.
Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic goliathgrouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen. It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature.
They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations. Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline.
The fish is entirely protected from harvest and is recognized as a critically endangered species by the IUCN. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.
Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. The name's origin is unclear, and may have referred to the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish.
In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of concerns that it was culturally insensitive. Database entry includes a range map and a lengthy justification of why this species is critically endangered ^ a b c Brass field, Mike (May 24, 2001).
Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.