logo
Archive

Goliath Grouper Description

author
Brent Mccoy
• Tuesday, 01 December, 2020
• 8 min read

Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus Tamara Synonyms Promiscuous Tamara (Lichtenstein, 1822) Serra nus Tamara Lichtenstein, 1822 Serra nus Menelik Valentines, 1828 Serra nus gales J.P. Müller & Trochee, 1848 Serra nus guava Play, 1860 Promiscuous one Ehrenberg, 1915 Promiscuous ditto Roux & Collision, 1954 The Atlantic goliathgrouper or Tamara (Epimetheus Tamara), also known as the Jewish, is a large saltwater fish of the grouper family found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths from 5 to 50 m (16 to 164 ft).

grouper goliath fish gordon florida file eating fishing commons juvenile safer ordering twice wikipedia bad think sonar wikimedia atlantic epinephelus
(Source: commons.wikimedia.org)

Contents

Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast. On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts.

In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal. Young Atlantic Goliath groupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers.

They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb). The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961.

Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic goliathgrouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen. It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature.

They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations. This makes them particularly vulnerable to mass harvesting while breeding.

grouper goliath atlantic wikipedia fish groupers itajara jew wiki reef belize kinds grow different largest they
(Source: www.wikidata.org)

Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline. The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico.

The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.

Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. In May 2015, the Atlantic goliathgrouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time.

Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara. In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter.

Besides shelter, tidal pools provide E. Tamara with plenty of prey such as lobster and porcelain crab. The Atlantic goliathgrouper has historically been referred to as the “Jewish”.

grouper goliath fish fishing species jarak epinephelus dark morio groupers records game pulau sharkbait largest saltwater spots igfa description head
(Source: floridasharkbait.blogspot.com)

It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe. In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive.

^ Lovato, Cleo nice Maria Cardozo; Soars, Bruno Clears; Begot, Tiago Octavio Buffalo; Montage, Luciano Coach de Assis (January 2016). “Tidal pools as habitat for juveniles of the Goliath grouper Epimetheus Tamara (Lichtenstein 1822) in the Amazonian coastal zone, Brazil”.

Risky, Delaney C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H. (2015). “ Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epimetheus Tamara. Photo courtesy Oaths large, solitary fish will defend its territory when threatened, with aggressive body language and a rumbling sound it makes with its swim bladder.

Its large, thick, elongated body can grow to over 8 feet long (and up to 800 pounds), from rounded snout and small eyes, to short, fan-like tail fin. Usually it is a mottled yellow-brown to gray with darker bard and spots, ideal for blending in to their rocky coral and muddy inshore habitat.

grouper goliath florida lose protection catch usa information www2 padi
(Source: www2.padi.com)

Other names are Baden (Portuguese), campus (Portuguese), hernia gig ante (Italian), China (Spanish), group (Portuguese), gran morgue (Iranian), guava (Spanish), data (Japanese), harbor (Norwegian), havsabborre (Swedish), Tamara Vienna (Polish), Judaism (Norwegian), hero guava (Spanish), hero (French), orphan (Turkish), raitameriahven (Finnish), Sophos (Greek), scarring (Italian), tip (Palikir), Atari (Icelandic), and zackenbarsch (German). A 450 pound goliathgrouper caught by Buddy Junks at the Big Indian Rocks Fishing Pier, Florida (1976).

Photo courtesy Kenneth Krzysztof historical importance to commercial fisheries, the goliathgrouper has also long been prized by recreational and sport fishers. Spear fishers find this fish easy to approach; hence in locations accessible to divers their numbers have declined.

The large size, slow growth, low reproductive rate, and spawning behavior have made the goliathgrouper especially susceptible to overfishing. The goliathgrouper is totally protected from harvest and is recognized as a “Critically Endangered” species by the World Conservation Union (IUCN).

Furthermore, the IUCN concludes that the species has been “observed, estimated, inferred or suspected” of a reduction of at least 80% over the last 10 years or three generations. Historical exploitation of goliathgrouper annual spawning aggregation sites greatly reduced the number of reproductive adults.

Occurring in shallow, inshore waters to depths of 150 feet (46 m), the goliathgrouper prefers areas of rock, coral, and mud bottoms. It is territorial near areas of refuge such as caves, wrecks, and ledges, displaying an open mouth and quivering body to intruders.

grouper goliath atlantic
(Source: guidesly.com)

Additional warning may be delivered in the form of the goliathgrouper ’s ability to produce a distinctly audible rumbling sound generated by the muscular contraction of the swim bladder. Photo courtesy NOAA Distinctive Features Goliath grouper are the largest members of the sea bass family in the Atlantic Ocean.

Coloration This fish is generally brownish yellow, gray, or olive with small dark spots on head, body, and fins. The presence of a number of short weakly developed canine teeth is useful in distinguishing this species from other North Atlantic groupers.

Photo © Don Maria Size, Age, and Growth The goliathgrouper is the largest grouper in the western Atlantic. However, this specimen was sampled from a population of individuals depressed by fishing pressure and it is projected that goliathgrouper may live much longer, perhaps as much as 50 years.

Photo © Don Maria Food Habits Goliath grouper feed largely on crustaceans (in particular spiny lobsters, shrimps and crabs), fishes (including stingrays and parrot fishes), octopus, and young sea turtles. However, the significance of this finding is of diminished value when one considers that transitional individuals are known to be rare amongst confirmed species of protogynous hermaphrodites, such as the red grouper (Epimetheus Mario) and gag (Mycteroperca microbes).

Photo courtesy National Marine Fisheries Service In support of the notion that the species is a protogynous hermaphrodite is the fact that the largest Goliath groupers are invariably male. Spawning occurs during the summer months of July, August, and September throughout the goliathgrouper ’s range and is strongly influenced by the lunar cycle. Ship wrecks, rock ledges, and isolated patch reefs are preferred spawning habitat.

(Source: www.istockphoto.com)

In the 1980s these aggregations reached a low of less than 10 individuals per site as fishing pressure greatly impacted this species. Since receiving legislative protection the spawning aggregations of goliathgrouper have risen to 20-40 individuals per location.

These pelagic larvae transform into benthic juveniles at lengths of one inch (2.5 cm), around 25 or 26 days after hatching. In an 1884 work, “The fishes of the Florida Keys,” David Starr Jordan proposed the inclusion of the goliathgrouper in Epimetheus (Bloch 1793) and this combination remains in use today.

Of incidental note is the fact that various authors have incorrectly spelled the specific epithet “Tamara” as “tiara.” The genus name comes from the Greek epinephelos translated as cloudy. A number of authors treat the name Promiscuous Tamara as valid taxonomy for the goliathgrouper.

It has a broad head, round tail, small eyes, and short dorsal spines. The protection of mangrove habitat is essential for the survival of the goliathgrouper and other animals and plants living in the same community.

It takes goliathgrouper five to six years to reach sexual maturity and until that time, they remain in mangrove habitat. Goliath grouper are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, with individuals first maturing as females and then changing sex to become males.

grouper goliath fish facts information lifespan hd
(Source: www.petworlds.net)

The goliathgrouper faces several threats including overfishing, destruction of habitat, red tide, and cold temperatures. Because it takes so long for goliathgrouper to reach sexual maturity, they have trouble rebounding from these threats.

The goliathgrouper is entirely protected from harvest in the United States and is recognized by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as a critically endangered species throughout its range. Goliath grouper occupies a wide geographic range, from Florida, including the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and Caribbean Sea, south to Brazil.

It is also found in both the eastern Pacific and eastern Atlantic from Senegal to the Democratic Republic of the Congo; however, it is rare in the Canary Islands. Based on a study done by Craig et al. (2009), results suggest that there are genetic differences between populations of goliathgrouper in U.S. waters and those near Belize and Brazil.

This species of grouper tends to be easily recognizable, in part, because it is the largest grouper species in western Atlantic waters. Its body is brownish yellow, gray or olive colored with irregular dark bars on its sides and small spots mostly on its head and fins.

The goliathgrouper has a very broad head with small eyes; the spiny dorsal fin is very low, and much shorter than the second dorsal fin. Juveniles are a yellowish-orange color with dark irregular vertical bands and blotches on their sides.

grouper giant goliath water istock
(Source: www.istockphoto.com)

The adult goliathgrouper lives in shallow waters up to 328 feet (100 meters) 6, over wrecks, corals or muddy or rocky bottoms. This is one of the few grouper species also found in brackish water habitats.

Adults are territorial and occupy limited home ranges. Juvenile and young-adult fish can be found around estuaries mangroves and oyster bars.

The typical spawning season is June through October; peak spawning within the Gulf of Mexico occurs from July through September. 5 There is still some debate whether this fish transitions from female to male as there appears to be a lack of conclusive evidence that this species is a protogynous hermaphrodite.

Cryptic genetic divergence in a threatened marine fish and the resurrection of a geopolitical species. Age, growth, and reproduction of Jewish Epimetheus Ithaca in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.

IFA All Tackle Record, Fernanda Beach, FL Obama, S., B. Eris man, W. Haman, C. Biggs, N. Farmer, S. Lowerre-Barbieri, M. Karnataka, and J. Brenner. Cooperative monitoring program for spawning aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico: data portal.

grouper goliath bubbles leave fish atlantic
(Source: www.leaveonlybubbles.com)

Related Videos

Other Articles You Might Be Interested In

01: Uhc Grouper Listing
02: Murk Grouper Xv
03: Video Of Goliath Grouper Eating Shark
04: Nexus 7 Grouper Fastest Rom
05: Of Black Grouper
06: Habitat For Black Grouper
07: Hard Lures For Grouper
08: Hawaiian Black Grouper
09: Hawaiian Grouper Fish
10: Poached Bass Grouper
Sources
1 www.theendlessmeal.com - https://www.theendlessmeal.com/perfect-poached-fish/
2 www.allrecipes.com - https://www.allrecipes.com/gallery/our-best-sea-bass-recipes/
3 www.foodnetwork.com - https://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/ellie-krieger/fish-with-tomatoes-olives-and-capers-recipe-1949827
4 en.wikipedia.org - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grouper
5 www.foodnetwork.com - https://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/ina-garten/herb-roasted-fish-recipe-2120222
6 www.epicurious.com - https://www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/steamed-whole-fish-with-ginger-scallions-and-soy-51115200
7 www.allrecipes.com - https://www.allrecipes.com/gallery/popular-side-dishes-fish/