Werner, who is from Farmington, Minn., was fishing May 31 near Marco Island off Florida with her brother, mother, and stepfather. “These things have amazing power,” Paul Hartman, Werner’s stepfather, told the Pioneer Press.
That fish, caught by Betsy Walker off Panama in 1965, is the women’s world record for 80-pound-test line. Thanks to the longstanding harvesting ban, the population is growing and larger fish are again being encountered by scuba divers and catch-and-release anglers.
According to Hartman, who often fishes in the Gulf of Mexico, the grouper caught by Werner has been caught before and is nicknamed “My Lord.” A Key West college student learned a hard lesson about Florida wildlife law this week, police said.
Joshua David Anyzeski, 18, was jailed Monday after state fish and wildlife officers said he removed a Goliath grouper from the water, so he could pose for a photo with it. He was arrested on a misdemeanor charge of possession of a Goliath grouper, booked into the Stock Island Detention Center and released the same day after posting a $7,500 bond.
A Key West college student got arrested after sharing this photo with friends in a group text. “The lagoon is a classroom space where we teach diving and marine science classes,” said Amber Ernst-Leonard, the college’s spokeswoman.
Anyzeski got in trouble after sending the photo of him holding the Goliath grouper to friends in a group text to brag about snagging the fish, according to the report. On Aug. 28, FCC investigators went to Anyzeski’s dorm room at the College of the Florida Keys to speak with him about the photo.
Asked if Anyzeski is in trouble with the school for the catch, Ernst-Leonard said the college does not comment on student disciplinary cases. She was part of the staff at the New Orleans Times-Picayune that in 2005 won two Pulitzer Prizes for coverage of Hurricane Katrina.
Mike was fighting a fish of a lifetime Friday aboard Chew On These Charters with Capt. Ben Chance out of Cape Coral, Fla., when the crazy incident occurred.
After Mike jumped into the water to get a photo with the fish before it was released, more craziness ensued: Chance explained to USA Today/For The Win Outdoors that about 20 minutes after the fishing rod was lost, Jenny said she could see it on the bottom in the crystal clear, 40-feet deep water and asked nearby boaters for goggles.
As Mike jumped into the water for the photo, the fish made a mad dash to the bottom with Eric holding the rod. He eventually released the lever drag so line could easily exit the reel, and the rod was handed to Chance, who managed to keep both feet on the deck and bring the fish back to the surface to be released.
The giant of the grouper family, the Goliath (formerly called Jewish) has brown or yellow mottling with small black spots on the head and fins, a large mouth with jawbones that extend well past its small eyes, and a rounded tail. The skeletal structure of large Goliath grouper cannot adequately support their weight out of the water without some type of damage.
If a large Goliath is brought on-board a vessel or out of the water, it is likely to sustain some form of internal injury and therefore be considered harvested. Goliath grouper populations declined throughout their range during the 1970s and 1980s due to increased fishing pressure from commercial and recreational fishers and divers.
At their July 2014 meeting in Key Largo, this committee reviewed the most up-to-date scientific information on goliathgrouper and recommended a new stock assessment for this species. As a result, the most recent stock assessment, conducted by the FCC was completed in June 2016 (Sedan 47).
The stock assessment indicates abundance in south Florida has greatly increased since the fishery closed in 1990. However, in the final step of the review process, the assessment was rejected by an independent panel of scientists for use in federal management due to a lack of reliable indicators of abundance outside south Florida.
Goliath are also susceptible to large scale mortality events such as cold temperatures and red tide blooms. When not feeding or spawning, adult Goliath groupers are generally solitary, sedentary and territorial.
Before the goliathgrouper reaches full-size it is preyed upon by barracuda, king mackerel and moray eels, as well as sandbar and hammerhead sharks. Calico crabs make up the majority of their diet, with other invertebrate species and fish filling in the rest.
Reproductive maturity first occurs in fish 5 or 6 years of age (about 36 inches in length) due to their slow growth rate. Males mature at a smaller size (about 42 inches) and slightly younger age than females.
These groups occur at consistent sites such as wrecks, rock ledges and isolated patch reefs during July, August and September. Studies have shown fish may move up to 62 miles (100 km) from inshore reefs to these spawning sites.
In southwest Florida, presumed courtship behavior has been observed during the full moons in August and September. They're naturally strong fish, but often it's their pure size and weight that makes them difficult to land.
This species of grouper can weight hundreds of pounds, and they're often responsible for broken lines and lost tackle. On Dec. 29, 1998, Ernesto Join landed the biggest broom tail grouper ever caught and certified as an IFA all-tackle record.
Alberto Penalty boated a giant mottled grouper on Aug. 13, 1996, off the east side of Gibraltar (a small country located between Spain and Morocco). William Laser landed the all-tackle record gulf grouper off Lore to in Baja California Sur, Mexico.
Fishing in the Gulf of Mexico off Texas, Tim Ostrich II reeled in a 124-pound black grouper. KOI Yeshiva caught the all-tackle record convict grouper off YAGNI Island in Okinawa, Japan, on April 25, 2011.
This particular species of grouper is considered endangered today and protected in the United States and Caribbean. Courtesy IFA / IFA.org. Once he got the grouper to the surface, Han removed hooks left from previous fisherman then took out the wrench and let the fish swim off, the TV station reports.
They're illegal to harvest so anyone who catches a Goliath grouper must release it unharmed, according to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Lurking in the deepest recesses of inshore waters is one of the most powerful and challenging species sought by anglers.
With nearly no natural predators once adulthood is reached and with a history of even stalking human swimmers on occasion, this monster of the deep is truly a worthy adversary for any fisherman. Goliath Groupers feed primarily on crustaceans such as spiny lobsters, shrimp, and crabs, as well as stingrays, octopus, and even young sea turtles, all of which it can easily catch and devour with its three to five rows of teeth.
Popular locations to fish for GoliathGrouper include bridges and structure when angling inshore, and sunken wrecks and reefs offshore. The easily approachable nature of the grouper makes it a great fish for spear fishermen, though this has reduced its population in areas accessible to divers.
It is a full contact sport that can leave even the strongest and fittest of anglers exhausted only minutes into the fight. However, if you’re truly dedicated to muscling one of these mammoths to the boat, and you can endure the long and demanding battle of catching one, you’ll be rewarded with a prize like no other.
Be sure to take lots of pictures, because you’ll definitely want proof to back up your story when regaling your jealous friends with your tale of triumph. Please subscribe to view.
Scientists believe Atlantic goliathgrouper can live upwards of 50 years, with it being commonly accepted their lifespan is at least 37. Now it can go off to cavort and caper in the ocean and do things it likes, such as attacking sharks and eating sea turtles.
In the old days this fearlessness made them easy prey for spear fishermen, they were a highly sought after sport fish, and now the goliathgrouper is critically endangered. If this fish is caught, fishermen must free the animal to the water alive and unharmed.
The goliathgrouper Epimetheus Tamara is a large sized (> 400 kg) and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. Tamara from the Baritone bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. Tamara life history were registered.
This species is found in the inner and outer Baritone bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area.
Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon), being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spade fishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. Tamara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species.
The goliathgrouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. Tamara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing.
Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E. Tamara local conservation and management practices by adding important new biological data into the decision-making process. Keywords: Ethnology, Marine conservation, Artisanal fisheries, Reef fish, Human ecology.
O hero Epimetheus Tamara é UMA specie DE page Marino DE grand properties (>400 kg) e criticamente Mercado, protein em moots passes, include o Brazil. A Peoria DE spinel directional à E. Tamara Pierce SER UMA radical em desaparecimento, com um detached system DE conhecimento ecologic local Que ESTA timber send per dido com o tempo.
Nos so escudo most Que picadors envolvidos em peccaries recenter, Como a PESC subaquática, poem timber possum detached system DE conhecimento ecologic local. Travel the analyst e integral do conhecimento ecologic local dos informants, diverse aspects the historian DE Vida DE E. Tamara form registrants.
ESTA specie é encontrada Na portal internal e external the bail Baritone, em aquas Salinas e em Agra com Grande sports DE Agra done, habitant resquícios DE broncos submerses e recipes artificial Como naufrágios, piers e containers DE cargo. Os zeros SAO considered pages curious e Pacific, mas freqüentemente demons tram comportment agonistic Na presence DE mergulhadores.
NOS proposes a diocese DE Que E. Tamara realize miracles baronies do interior para o exterior the bail no verso, e Que a populace Estrada ESTA COFREND DE sobrepesca do crescent. It is found throughout tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic, from Florida to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean and along the western African coast, from Congo to Senegal.
The species inhabits marine and brackish waters, and it associates with complex and hard substrates such as reef/rock ledges, rocky bottoms, mangrove shorelines and shipwrecks. Similarly to other species from the genus Mycteroperca and Epimetheus, E. Tamara is extremely vulnerable to overfishing, mainly due to critical life history traits such as late sexual maturity (five years), long life (>38 years), strong site fidelity, slow growth and formation of spawning aggregations (Bullock et al., 1992; Huntsman et al., 1999; Saxony & Edmund, 1999; Morris et al., 2000; Edmund & Schulz, 2001).
The World Conservation Union lists E. Tamara as a critically endangered species (Chan Tak-Chuen & Radovan Herrera, 2006). In Brazil, a five-year fishing moratorium was set as a precautionary management measure in order to allow for a stock evaluation research.
However, data on E. Tamara landings and even on basic life history traits of this fish are almost in existent in Brazil. Information, when available, is fragmented and apparently insufficient for a satisfactory evaluation of population status along the Brazilian coast.
In this context, as it has been repeatedly demonstrated, the local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen may be unique as a source of information for management and research issues (Johannes, 1998; Sagas & Begins, 2001; Saxony & Cheung, 2003; Saenz-Arroyo et al., 2005a,b). Local ecological knowledge is defined here as a “body” and a “system” of understandings and know-how that arise through time from a variety of individual and shared experiences and observations, mediated by culture, regarding environmental factors, behavioral attributes, and ecological dynamics (Davis & Wagner, 2003).
Herein we investigate the local ecological knowledge of expert goliathgrouper fishermen from southern Brazil, searching to improve the knowledge base on fisheries and biology aspects of what may be the southernmost E. Tamara population in the Atlantic Ocean. The study was conducted in Baritone bay, which is one of the largest estuaries systems in southern Brazil (Fig.
The bay has approximately 130 km 2 of water surface and 6 m of average depth, with some channels reaching 30 m deep (Obama, 1998). Rocky and fluvial islands are found within the bay, and the bottom is dominated by rock and mud.
The area was colonized by Europeans in mid-eigh-teenth century, and holds today approximately 33 communities, 1089 fishermen and 493 small boats, from which only 67% are motorized (Obama, 1998). Among the most used fishing gears are gill nets, bottom trawling, long-line, castanet and “arrival” (tide/motor-driven net which targets shrimps) (Pindar & Creme, 2004).
The main fishing resources are fin-fishes (mainly Ariadne, Carangidae, Mudslide, Paralichthyidae, Pomatomidae, Sciaenidae and Serranidae), shrimps, oysters, clams and crabs (Obama, 1998; Pindar & Creme, 2004). Seven project “informants” were selected, given preference to those fishermen showing an in-depth knowledge content on goliathgrouper life traits, practical experience, ability to communicate with the research team, community recognition and most importantly, willingness to participate in the project.
Each informant was interviewed following a semi-structured conversation in order to record the Local Ecological Knowledge (Led) on E. Tamara. Although the conversation was freely conducted, giving opportunity to the exploration of the informant's knowledge content, some specific topics were predetermined (Table 1).
To each conversation topic, a comparative table was created to facilitate data analysis. According to our informants and recent regional statistics bulletin on fisheries landings data (Univalve, 2002), E. Tamara is caught by the following gears: long line set near reef formations in the inner and outer Baritone bay; industrial bottom trawling fleet (bull and double trawling); artisanal bottom trawling fleet (shrimps); gill nets within Baritone bay; amateur fishing with rods in the inner bay and; spearfishing in the outer bay.
Fishery data available for E. Tamara in the State of Santa Catarina is not representative of the real total landing volume expected (e.g. only 513 kg registered in 2002) given the intensity to which the industrial fleet operates in Santa Catarina. Small individuals of up to 15 kg are occasionally caught by gill nets in the inner Baritone bay.
Young E. Tamara (<1 kg) are caught by small bottom trawling boats in the inner bay and adjacency. Spear fishing is a relatively recent practice in Santa Catarina, and according to our senior informant, was introduced in Baritone bay around 50 years ago.
Initially introduced by amateurs (tourists from distant urban centers), spear fishing is today a common practice among local professional fishermen. As modern and low cost equipments were made available (special suits, fins and spear-guns), spear-fishing was gradually being practiced at deeper sites (>20 m) and under adverse oceanographic conditions (waves, currents and low temperatures).
Today, illegal spear-fishing is practiced by some professional fishermen, which use a diverse set of underwater breathing apparatus (e.g. Spear fishermen take into account several factors when choosing the most favorable fishing spots, such as the abundance of targeted species and number of fishermen in the water at a given place, tide and current conditions.
Thus, a large Led content is needed to make this fishing activity economically viable. Apparently, a large part of these fishermen's Led is acquired during the individuals' life cycle, as most of their families have no tradition on spear fishing.
However, we noticed that sometimes the main and newly discovered fishing spots are kept in secret (Leg, peers. Obtaining economic subsistence from multiple sources (e.g., small-scale agriculture) is a common practice among fishermen families in Brazil.
Epimetheus Tamara has been caught in the inner Baritone bay for at least 60 years (Tiago, 1941). However, we suspect that the long-line fishing for E. Tamara is a much older local tradition, as our senior long-line informant represented at least the third generation of his family practicing it.
As the baits lose attractiveness, they are replaced and the long-line remains fishing for a couple of days. Long-line informants say that sometimes a large E. Tamara would be moored alive to artificial structures near the beach, waiting to be sold in the local market or eventually to neighboring cities.
According to all informants, fishermen are not solely or highly dependent on E. Tamara for subsistence or commercialization. It was apparent in the speech of all long-line informants that the E. Tamara long-line fishery has not been part of young fishermen's routine.
Gillnets and “arrival”) and the fishing moratorium seem to discourage long line practice nowadays. It is interesting to note the social distance between spear-fishing and long-line informants, reflected in the unfamiliarity with each other's fishing practices.
Similarly, no long-line informant knew at that point about the existence of spawning aggregation events. Three out of four spear-fishing informants were categorical when stating that mature female gonads (Table 2) are usually found in December.
Two long-line informants observed the smallest mature individuals with weights ranging from 40-60 kg in the study area. However, our senior spear-fishing informant provided us a very detailed report on the differences between male and female behavior in spawning aggregations (Gerhardinger et al., 2006).
According to him, the male “takes care” of the female, swimming towards the diver and showing agonistic behavior (territorial defense through the emission of loud, low frequency sounds). With the intention of conserving females (which were always caught with well-developed gonads), he usually decided to catch male individuals (which were thinner and with no oocytes), even if this decision would demand an increased fishing effort.
All of them considered that E. Tamara aggregates for spawning purposes because fish caught in these occasions had well-developed gonads (in advanced maturity phases). Spawning aggregations are seen in the outer Baritone bay, usually in December, although one of our informants has observed this event in January and February.
On a consensual speech, all spear-fishing informants associated E. Tamara aggregations to full moon phases. On the other hand, spear-fishing informants were able to visualize natural feeding strategies of E. Tamara, besides also observing its stomach contents.
According to spear-fishing informants, the food items preferred by E. Tamara are lobsters, the Atlantic spade fish Chaetodipterus Faber and octopuses. Long-line informants referred to catfishes (Ariadne) as the preferred E. Tamara food item.
The sound is usually heard even before the diver can actually locate the E. Tamara underwater, and is sometimes regarded as a strong indicator of its presence at fishing sites. Young E. Tamara (<40 cm) already show this sound producing behavior in aquariums (Leg, peers.
Physical trauma was regarded by all spear-fishermen as a potential risk of diving closely to large individuals. One spear-fishing informant also remembered that E. Tamara can sometimes suck the divers' arms, releasing it after a few seconds.
According to two long-line informants, dying E. Tamara are frequently found floating within the bay. Among the causes cited by these informants, two perceptions were convergent: 1) large amount of fat tissue in the viscera; 2) sudden decrease in water temperature within the bay.
According to our informants, E. Tamara is also found nearby submerged artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers in the inner and outer bay. In areas where spear-fishing is commonly practiced (outer bay reefs), fishes from 20 to more than 300 kg can be observed.
Long-line informants agreed that E. Tamara is caught year round in the inner Baritone bay. It was suggested by two long-line informants that this fish species might be at deeper areas within the bay during winter.
Spear-fishing informants recognized a much shorter period of time during which E. Tamara is available along their fishing sites (outer bay). Although they agree that it is possible to find E. Tamara during all the warmer months, during December this fish apparently peaks in abundance.
All spear-fishing informants also associate the period of increased abundance of this fish with the full moon phase. Although none of our spear-fishing informants were sure about their knowledge on the species seasonality patterns, they all hypothesized that E. Tamara may migrate to other areas during colder months.
They justify arguing that throughout their life as fishermen, they have noticed a decrease on the number of individuals sighted in places where they were once abundant. Ilegal fishing with underwater breathing apparatus and pollution) and decreased availability of feeding resources, such as lobsters.
Interestingly, all of our long-line informants are optimistic regarding E. Tamara conservation status within the bay. The argument sustaining such opinion is the small number of local fishermen targeting E. Tamara.
Furthermore, long-line informants argues that there has been a gradual decrease on E. Tamara landings, since long-line fishing tradition is being lost. Although the loss of the E. Tamara long-line fishing culture seems to minimize the socioeconomic conflicts that may arise due to the fishing moratorium imposed by the Brazilian government, the socioeconomic impacts of such management measure should be further investigated.
In the Gulf of Mexico and Florida, the reproductive period of this fish occurs between June and October, corresponding to the summer months (or wet season) in the Northern Hemisphere (Saxony & Edmund, 1999). Some of our informants have the idea that fish producing a large amount of eggs does not suffer recruitment shortages, opinion shared by many other people in the community (Leg, peers.
However, highly fecund fishes may also suffer biological extinction (Roberts & Hawkins, 2000; Saxony & Cheung, 2003). Despite its high fecundity levels (Saxony & Edmund, 1999), E. Tamara has a set of life history traits that makes it especially vulnerable to over-fishing (e.g.
Long living, slow growing, late sexual maturity, strong site fidelity, aggregates to spawn) (Saxony & Edmund, 1999), and therefore is a species of conservation concern. In the Gulf of Mexico, E. Tamara individuals enter the adult population when they reach 100-135 cm of total length (Bullock et al., 1992), which corresponds approximately to 40-60 kg, a value similar to that pointed by two of our long-line informants.
Although our data from fishermen are fragmented and incomplete regarding maturation size of this fish, precise estimates reached through conventional reproductive biology surveys are far from being viable in Brazil, especially after the fishing moratorium. For instance, the most complete study on E. Tamara reproductive biology was done by Bullock et al.
Colin (1994) indicates that spawning E. Tamara assumes a darker color and their faces become pallid. Although our informants did not observe such spawning behavior, our senior interviewee contributed with intriguing new data on divergent male and female behavior in spawning aggregations (Gerhardinger et al., 2006).
We understand that in cases where a single individual's local knowledge can potentially contribute to new biological information, efforts should be made to validate this local knowledge by alternative means (Hamilton, 2005), instead of simply discarding it due to the impossibility of cross-checking data. Epimetheus Tamara is presumed to be a protogynous species (Smith, 1971), implying that individual fishes would first mature as females, experiencing sex reversal later in life.
In photogenic species, the population sex ratio is female dominated, and depends on complex social interactions still not well understood (Shapiro, 1989). However, the reproductive strategy of E. Tamara has not yet been completely elucidated regarding protogynous Hermaphroditus (Bullock et al., 1992).
If the progeny hypothesis is confirmed for E. Tamara, the conservation tactic elaborated and practiced by our informant and his colleagues (targeting males to conserve highly fecund females) may be considered unsustainable. Sex reversal processes are not fast, and the loss of large individuals (primarily males) could potentially result in sperm limitation in spawning aggregations (Beets & Fried lander, 1999).
Saxony & Edmund (1999) pointed that one of the major causes of drastic E. Tamara population decline in several locations might be the fishing on spawning aggregations. Studying the underlying dynamics of E. Tamara spawning aggregations will be an important task for future conventional ichthyologist approaches.
However, there is strong evidence showing that protecting such aggregations is extremely important on a conservation perspective. The jaws format of E. Tamara suggests it is an ambush hunter, capturing its preys by water suction (Weaver, 1996).
The small canine teeth typical of E. Tamara may reveal a preference for crustaceans, especially lobsters and crabs (Randall, 1967; Bullock & Smith, 1991; Saxony & Edmund, 1999). However, fish, octopuses and even marine turtles were already found as preys of the largest individuals (Randall, 1983; Bullock & Smith, 1991).
A strong similarity is noticed between the feeding habits of E. Tamara in our study based on fishermen's Led and those determined by conventional ichthyology research in the Northern Hemisphere (Table 3). Furthermore, as spear and long-line fishermen exploit different fishing grounds, we may conclude that lobsters, octopuses and spade fish consist of important feeding resources for E. Tamara in the outer bay, while catfishes are important prey items for inner bay individuals.
Our comparison shows that data on Led regarding E. Tamara natural feeding aspects are reinforced by biological studies conducted elsewhere. Sale & Sugar (2005) argues that the understanding of food webs provides important guidelines for marine conservation.
Thus, our results adds on a growing body of evidence on how fishermen based information can be reliably used in fisheries management and science (Saenz-Arroyo et al., 2005a; Silva no & Begins, 2005). The loud low-frequency sounds produced by E. Tamara are apparently generated by the gas bladder and its associated muscles (Fish & Mow bray, 1970).
However, E. Tamara usually does not show agonistic behavior, and is known by most divers as a pacific and curious species. A. Bernini) had one of his arms sucked by a large sized E. Tamara (>100 cm) while closely photographing an individual which was displaying such sounds.
This behavior was also observed by Carvalho-Filho (1999) and by one of our spear-fishing informants, and can cause injuries by the small canine teeth of the fish if the diver's arms are uncovered with a wetsuit. There has been an increased interest on underwater tourism focused on E. Tamara in southern Brazil.
Large sized dying E. Tamara individuals were frequently seen by our informants, who regarded this as a common event. Local artisanal fishermen in northern Brazil (Bahia) have also observed dying E. Tamara individuals within the estuary (Leg peers.
(1978) and Smith (1976) have registered E. Tamara mortality events in the Gulf of Mexico as a function of low temperatures and red tides, respectively. Marine fish mortality events are common in the coast of Santa Catarina and need a further specialized investigation.
In both cases, E. Tamara are found from shallow bays and estuaries to the open ocean (Ovum, 1971). Juveniles (< 110 cm total length) are found in well-developed fringing red mangrove shorelines, especially in sites with high structural complexity, soft sediment and eroded shorelines (Frias-Torres, 2006).
Our E. Tamara studied population is located in the southernmost distribution limit known for this species (Hostim-Silva et al., 2005). Climatic factors related to high latitudes can generate wider water temperature fluctuations.
Thus, we may advance with the hypothesis that seasonal effects might play an important role in determining E. Tamara local migration patterns in the studied site. In the Northern Hemisphere, large individuals of E. Tamara can apparently settle at the same locality for more than one year at coastal and offshore sites (Smith, 1976).
This behavior was also observed in low latitude coastal and oceanic sites in Northern Brazil (Leg, peers. We observed a sharp contradiction between the opinion of the two groups of informants (spear-fishing vs long-line) regarding local conservation status of E. Tamara.
We hypothesize that this contradiction has its roots in the different ways both groups experience and accumulate knowledge on the resources they exploit (Table 4). Albeit dealing with the same E. Tamara population, it seems that the two fishermen's categories (long-line vs spear-fishing) exploit distinct life stages (juveniles vs adults).
In this sense, while small sized E. Tamara are still apparently abundant (taking into account long-line informant perceptions), this species may not be allowing growing large, as larger adults are becoming scarce. Ferreira & Maid (1995), after evaluating the opinion of experienced fishermen and researchers, suggested that abundance of E. Tamara had considerably decreased in Brazil along the past decades.
Existent catch statistics on E. Tamara are apparently not capable to subsidize stock evaluations in Brazil (Ferreira & Maid, 1995; Univalve, 2002). Led assessments might thus be one of the few affordable ways to recover the history of this species population status in this country.
Led and other anecdotal information are increasingly being acknowledged as an important mechanism of recovering and assessing marine species at risk (Sáenz-Arroyo, 2005a). Bullock et al., 1992; Saxony & Edmund, 1999; 1999; Frias-Torres, 2006) and data from fishermen's Led at our study area.
Although the local spear-fishing culture is not as traditional nor as old as the long-line fishing, we observed a detailed ecological knowledge system inherent to spear-fishermen. Detailed knowledge on the habitat and behavior of the resource exploited is required from fishermen in order to make spear-fishing economically viable.
Additionally, the primarily visual and closer contact with the marine ecosystem might accelerate the accumulation of Led on the exploited resources. Such research will be of great importance for the delineation of reasonable conservation measures aimed to protect this species on a national level (e.g.
Evaluating the social impacts of the ongoing moratorium on fishermen communities economy). This research is part of a broader effort to approach several issues on E. Tamara conservation in Brazil.
The results herein presented will hopefully help to build a healthy dialogue between researchers, fishermen and managers. The foreseen category of MPA will allow traditional artisanal fishermen to continue exploiting the area.
The Brazilian legislation on protected areas also foresees a management discussion forum for this MPA, which will include a broad range of local community representatives. The data set herein presented is therefore a practical evidence that joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E. Tamara local conservation and management practices by adding important new biological data into the decision-making process.
We thank all informants that kindly shared their knowledge and warmly received us in their homes for long periods of productive conversation. We thank comments and suggestions on the manuscript from Ricardo Corbett, Sarah Frias-Torres, Fernando G. Becker and two anonymous referees.
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