Gag Grouper Wikipedia

Carole Stephens
• Sunday, 20 June, 2021
• 23 min read

Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Mycteroperca Species: Binomial name Mycteroperca microbes Synonyms Isotropic microbes Goode & Bean, 1879 Mycteroperca microbes, the gag, gag grouper, velvet rock fish or charcoal belly, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a grouper from the subfamilyEpinephelinae which is part of the familySerranidae, which also includes the antics and sea basses.

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(Source: www.wikidata.org)


It comes from warmer parts of the West Atlantic, including the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. It is a drab, mottled-gray fish lacking the distinguishing features of most other groupers.

Its pattern of markings resembles the box-shaped spots of the black grouper (Mycteroperca Monaco). Mycteroperca microbes has an oblong, robust body which is laterally compressed.

The depth of the body is normally less than the length of the head and it is usually roughly equal in depth at the origin of the dorsal fin and at the anal fin origin. The dorsal profile of the head is convex and the properly has a rounded lobe at its angle which is has enlarged serrations.

The adult females and the juveniles are normally pale gray to brown-grey marked with darker blotches and wavy lines that give a marbled appearance to the upper flanks and back. When resting they often assume a camouflage pattern with 5 dark brown saddles separated by white bars along the base of the dorsal fin.

The large adult males are typically pale to medium gray in color, with an indistinct reticulated pattern underneath the dorsal fin. They are darker gray or black on the breast and belly, with a similar color on the margins of the soft rated part of the dorsal find the caudal fin, as well as the posterior margins of the pectoral and pelvic fins.

grouper catch wikipedia fillet wiki fishes known names
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

This species attains a maximum total length of 145 centimeters (57 in) although 50 centimeters (20 in) is a more common length, and the maximum published weight attained is 36.5 kilograms (80 lb). Mycteroperca microbes have different habitat preferences as juveniles and adults.

The juveniles are found in estuaries and beds of seagrass while the adults are found farther offshore over rocky substrates at depths of 40 to 10 meters (131 to 33 ft) and have been recorded as deep as 152 meters (499 ft). It is one of the commonest species of grouper on the eastern Gulf of Mexico.

They have been recorded producing thumping sounds when under stress, this is done by vibrating the swim bladder using muscular contractions. The adults are predators on fishes (including smaller conspecifics), crabs, shrimps, and cephalopods while the smaller juveniles prey on crustaceans within the beds of seagrass in shallow waters.

The fishes preyed are largely herring, sea bream, jacks and pompanos, drums and gray mullet. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite, all fish start life as females, attaining sexual maturity between the ages of 5 and 6 years old and having reached a total length of 67 to 75 centimeters (26 to 30 in), they will spawn at least once and then some will change sex and become males.

In the offshore waters between North Carolina and Florida during 1976-1982 the sex ration was found to favor females, with 84% of the population being female, 15% were males and 1% were in the process of sex change. In the Atlantic coastal waters between North Carolina and Florida there are annual migrations in late winter, these migrations involve sexually mature fishes moving to offshore spawning grounds where at depths of 70 meters (230 ft).

grouper epinephelus malabar sea malabaricus ushaka fish groupers marine wiki pacific wikipedia fishes bass longtooth found scientific
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

The spawning season in this region runs from December through May, peaking in late March and early April. After spawning the females move towards shallower waters, with depths less than 30 meters (98 ft) while the males prefer waters of 50 to 90 meters (160 to 300 ft) They maximum recorded age is 31 years.

Mycteroperca microbes is targeted by commercial and recreational fisheries using handling, bottom longline and speargun. Fishermen target the spawning aggregation while the juveniles are frequently caught as by catch in the bait-shrimp fishery that fishes over seagrass beds.

There have been reports of ciguatera poisoning among humans following the consumption of flesh from M. microbes. This species is threatened by and is vulnerable to overfishing and both Mexico and the United States have introduced conservation measures.

Shore fishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).

Mycteroperca Monaco Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Mycteroperca Species: Binomial name Mycteroperca Monaco Synonyms Monaco Ararat Parr, 1787 Serra nus Monaco Play, 1860 Serra nus runners Play, 1860 Serra nus decimals Play, 1860 Serra nus Ararat Store, 1860 Serra nus cyclopomatus Play, 1861 Serra nus latepictus Play, 1861 Isotropic again Play, 1867 Mycteroperca Monaco var.

gag grouper
(Source: keyesmarina.com)

Myctoperca Monaco has an oblong, literally compressed body with a standard length which is 3.3 to 3.5 times its depth. It has an evenly rounded properly with no incisions or lobes at its angle.

The caudal fin is truncate to marginate, although it may be convex if spread widely. This species has an overall t’s an olive gray color and is marked with dark blotches and brassy hexagonal spots over the head and flanks.

This fish attains a maximum total length of 150 centimeters (59 in), although they are more common at around 70 centimeters (28 in) and a maximum published weight of 100 kilograms (220 lb). Mycteroperca Monaco occurs over rocky bottoms and coral reefs at depths of 10 to 30 meters (33 to 98 ft), however in the eastern Gulf of Mexico it is normally encountered at depths of more than 30 meters (98 ft).

It is usually a solitary species, the adults feeding mainly on fishes, such as grunts, snapper and herrings, and the juveniles feed on crustaceans. Black groupers have been recorded forming seasonal feeding aggregations along the outer continental shelf off Brazil, these coincide with spawning aggregations of some fish species the groupers prey on.

They are is a monastic protogynous hermaphrodites, and they form spawning aggregations and these have been reported from in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Females attain sexual maturity at around 5years old and at a length of around 82.6 centimeters (32.5 in) and the change of sex to males occurs when they are around 15 years old and at a mean length of 121.4 centimeters (47.8 in).

grouper gag season gulf kicked florida
(Source: clearwaterinshorefishing.com)

Shore fishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).

An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). World Register of Marine Species.

^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). “ Grouper Malabar grouper, Epimetheus malarious Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: EpinephelinaeBleeker, 1874 Tribes and genera Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses.

The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca. In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'.

However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “. Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine.

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(Source: www.crystalriver-fishing.com)

Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth. They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably.

They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx. They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans.

Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed. They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills.

The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language. In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku.

In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region. The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes.

grouper gag fish florida offshore beach weld tuesday catch sportsman sunday
(Source: www.floridasportsman.com)

The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. Groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing.

As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease. If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so.

Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times. The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover.

Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males. Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size.

Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing. Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed.

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Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets. Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning.

DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools. In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón.

The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait. In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China.

^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014). ^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006).

^ John E. Randall; Kashmir Aida; Takashi Libya; Nobuhiro Missouri; His Kamila & Yorkshire Hashimoto (1971). “Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF).

mycteroperca grouper fusca island species wikipedia azores animals inaturalist plants
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage. Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae).

Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish. A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew.

Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism. Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage. Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes.

^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution. ^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

grouper gag panama
(Source: coastalanglermag.com)

Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”. ^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”. ^ Heather Alexander, Houston Chronicle (21 August 2014).

“Gulf grouper swallows 4 foot shark in a single bite”. Wiki source has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Grouper “.

Scamp grouper Data Deficient (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Mycteroperca Species: Binomial name Mycteroperca final The scamp grouper has a body which is elongated, robust and compressed with its depth being the same at the origin of the dorsal fin as it is at the origin of the anal fin.

The standard length is 3.0 to 3.4 times the body's depth. The properly is angular, with an obvious bony lobe at its serrated angle.

grouper fish wikipedia mycteroperca haiti happening phylum conservation status bonaci
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are incised. One has the head and body pale brown in background color but the body is almost entirely covered in small dark red-brown spots, one on each scale, these frequently form clusters shaped like the paw-prints and these form saddle like blotches along the back and elongate blotches on the flanks.

These spots extend onto the dorsal and anal fins while the pectoral fin has a dark inner margin and a whitish outer margin. The third phase has large adults which have slavery gray a silvery gray head and front off the body with dark reticulations and the posterior two-thirds of the body are dark.

It also has black margins on the pectoral fins and a pale edged dark tail. The fourth color phase is bi colored, pale brown anteriorly, changing abruptly to dark from the soft rated part of the dorsal fin.

The scamp grouper occurs in the western Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina south along the southern Atlantic coast of the United States into the Gulf of Mexico where it has been recorded as far south as Belize, but it is absent from much of the West Indies It is also found along the Caribbean coast of South America from Colombia to Tobago. Juveniles are sometimes recorded as far north as Massachusetts and a vagrant has been caught in the Azores.

The scamp grouper is found at depths of 0 to 100 meters (0 to 328 ft), the adults are found over rock ledges and rocky bottoms with high relief usually deeper than 30 meters (98 ft). Juveniles are found in reefs in shallower water and will enter estuaries AMD mangroves.

gag grouper
(Source: www.etsy.com)

It is a protogynous hermaphrodite forming small, short-lived spawning aggregations, which may be ten to a few hundred strong over offshore reefs with high relief along the edge of the continental shelf. These take place from February until July in the United States Atlantic waters and in the Gulf of Mexico, peaking from March to the middle of May.

Scamp are the most numerous grouper in areas of living Celina reefs at depths between 70 and 100 meters (230 to 330 ft) off the eastern coast of Florida. It has been suggested that scamp prefers areas of high topographic complexity as they are relatively small and the can use overhangs, ledges and caves to shelter from predators like sharks and greater amber jack (Serious numerals).

The scamp is a popular game and commercial fish and is high prized among the grouper family. Its meat is white, sweet in taste and has excellent food value.

The name “scamp” is said to be because of their ability to steal bait from hooks without being caught. There is a lack of population data for this species in a large part of its range and there is a major threat from fishing, as a result the IUCN has classified it as Data Deficient.

Shore fishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).

gag grouper florida sarasota woman fl
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Like many fish species in the wrasse family, young gag grouper are predominantly female, transforming into males as they grow larger. The coloration of this species is extremely variable but generally brownish gray overall with a pattern of dark, worm-like or kiss-shaped markings along the sides.

Gags can be distinguished from black grouper, Mycteroperca Monaco, that often occur in the same habitat by the distinctive color pattern and the shape of the properly (the middle bone of the gill cover). Wrecks and oil rigs in shallow shelf waters of the Gulf also attract many gag grouper.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus lanceolatus Synonyms Holocentrus lanceolatus Bloch, 1790 Promiscuous lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) Serra nus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) Serra nus geographic us Valentines, 1828 Serra nus abdominal is Peters, 1855 Barracks gigs Gunther, 1869 Rigorous Goliath DE Vi's, 1882 Serra nus phaeostigmaeus Fowler, 1907 Stereolepoides Thompson Fowler, 1923 The giant grouper has a robust body which has a standard length equivalent to 2.4 to 3.4 times its depth.

The dorsal profile of the head and the intraorbital area are convex, The properly has a rounded corner and a finely serrated margin. The gill cover has a convex upper margin.

The adults are greyish-brown in color overlain with a mottled pattern and with darker fins. The giant grouper can grow to huge size with the maximum recorded standard length being 270 centimeters (110 in), although they are more common around 180 centimeters (71 in).

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And a maximum published weight of 400 kilograms (880 lb). The giant grouper is a species of shallow water and can be found at depths of 1 to 100 meters (3.3 to 328.1 ft).

Large specimens have been caught from shore and in harbors. They are found in caves and in wrecks while the secretive juveniles occur in reefs and are infrequently observed.

The adults are mainly solitary and hold territories on the outer reef and in lagoons. They have also been caught in turbid water over silt or mud sea beds by prawn fishermen.

The giant grouper is an opportunistic ambush predator which feeds on a variety of fishes, as well as small sharks, juvenile sea turtles, crustaceans and mollusks which are all swallowed whole. Fish which inhabit coral reefs and rocky areas favor spiny lobsters as prey and 177 centimeters (70 in) specimen taken of Maui in Hawaii had a stomach contents of two spiny lobsters and a number of crabs.

Fish living in estuaries environments in South Africa were found to be feeding almost exclusively on the crab Scylla errata. They are, however, curious and frequently approach divers closely.

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They are not generally considered dangerous to humans but divers are advised to treat large specimens with caution and not to hand feed them. They are aggregate broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male.

Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring. Giant groupers are diabetic protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that although some males develop from reproductively functional females other males start to produce sperm without ever having gone through a phase as a reproductive female.

The giant grouper is a highly valued food fish and is taken by both commercial and recreational fisheries. As well as the consumption of its flesh its skin, gall bladder and stomach are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

It is valued in Hong Kong as a live fish for the live reef food fish trade, especially smaller specimens. This species is cultured in agriculture and this practice is widespread but there is a restricted supply of juveniles, although hatcheries in Taiwan have produced captive bred juveniles, exporting some for to be grown on in other parts of South-East Asia.

Many of the fish produced in aquaculture are hybrids between this species and E. fuscoguttatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

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“A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus)”. ^ Peter Palma; Akihito Nakamura; Garden XYZ Libunaoa; et al. (2019).

U.S. wild-caught gag grouper is a smart seafood choice because it is sustainably managed and responsibly harvested under U.S. regulations. Near target levels and fishing rate promotes population growth in the South Atlantic.

The Gulf of Mexico gag population declined for several years beginning in 2005, possibly due to a major “red tide” event (an algal bloom that releases potent neurotoxin). Managers implemented a number of measures to rebuild the stock, and it was declared rebuilt in 2014.

Smaller fish are much lighter and have dark brown or charcoal kiss-like marks along their sides. Gag grow slowly, can reach more than 3 feet in length, and weigh up to 50 pounds.

Commercial fishermen must have a limited access permit to fish, land, or sell snapper and grouper species. A number of gear requirements and restrictions help reduce by catch and protect habitat.

grouper gag performance sleeve tail neon
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In the Gulf of Mexico, managed under the Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery Management Plan : Annual catch limit allocated between the commercial (39 percent) and recreational (61 percent) fisheries. Restrictions on the type of gear fishermen may use and where they can fish, to reduce by catch and protect spawning groups.

Goliath and Nassau grouper are protected from harvest in Florida waters. Coloration is highly variable in gag and changes with the size of the fish.

Smaller fish are much lighter and have numerous dark brown or charcoal kiss-like marks along the sides. The scamp, M. final, and black grouper, M. Monaco, closely resemble the gag and often occur in the same habitat.

Gag have deeply notched properties, distinguishing them from black grouper. The gag grouper is the most widely distributed grouper in the region, with adults present from North Carolina to Brazil over low- and high-profile hard bottom in waters 60-500 feet deep.

Young gag inhabit estuaries from Massachusetts to Cape Canaveral. Spawning takes place in February off the coast of the Carolina's and in January through March in the Gulf of Mexico.

gag grouper smyrna causeway report south mud caught florida groupers same
(Source: www.floridashorefishing.com)

50% of females mature at 24" Total Length (TL) and 3 years of age. Gag may live for 26 years and grow to be 58 inches in length and weigh up to 81 pounds.

Gag often congregate around rocky ledges and swim in small groups. They are predators of round scad, sardines, porgies, snappers, grunts, crabs, shrimp and squid.

The caudal (tail) and anal fins of the gag have white margins, while the black grouper does not. Open Season: May 1 – December 31 Note: since this species is managed under an Annual Catch Limit, the fishery could close if the recreational Annual Catch Limit is met or projected to be met.

Recreational and commercial fishermen are required to use hooking tools when fishing for snapper grouper species. At least one hooking device is required and must be used as needed to remove hooks embedded in South Atlantic snapper- grouper with minimum damage.

Definition of a Descending Device: an instrument to which is attached a minimum of a 16 ounce weight and a length of line that will release the fish at the depth from which the fish was caught or a minimum of 60 feet. Since minimizing surface time is critical to increasing survival, descending devices shall be readily available for use while engaged in fishing.

Open Season: May 1 – December 31 Note: since this species is managed under an Annual Catch Limit, the fishery could close if the commercial Annual Catch Limit is met or projected to be met. If an in-season closure were to be announced by NOAA Fisheries, all relevant information will be included here.

Recreational and commercial fishermen are required to use hooking tools when fishing for snapper grouper species. At least one hooking device is required and must be used as needed to remove hooks embedded in South Atlantic snapper- grouper with minimum damage.

Definition of a Descending Device: an instrument to which is attached a minimum of a 16 ounce weight and a length of line that will release the fish at the depth from which the fish was caught or a minimum of 60 feet. Since minimizing surface time is critical to increasing survival, descending devices shall be readily available for use while engaged in fishing.

The use of non-stainless steel hooks when fishing for snapper- grouper species with hook-and-line gear and natural baits south of 28º north latitude. This prohibition does not apply to fish harvested, landed, and sold prior to the annual catch limit being reached and held in cold storage by a dealer.

Are tough as heck fighters Can be found in most regions/depths Grouper provide some of the most popular fish-eating meat in America… Makes them a very popular fish to both offshore and inshore anglers (and tourists looking for a good Grouper sandwich).

Max limit for 2 from 17 ft skiff using the leader rig shown below. But a problem with grouper fishing (and targeting other species when bottom fishing) is that many anglers don’t put much thought into making their leaders… They simply get a weight, a hook, some line, and perhaps a swivel or two and start tying their favorite knot for all the connections.

And a majority of the time, that lack of thinking about all aspects of what they’re targeting leaves the following two problems: The weakest point in the overall system (most often at the knot that connects the lighter main line to the top of the heavier leader assembly) is up above the weight.

And since grouper are structure oriented, the odds of them getting stuck to the bottom due to the weight getting snagged are high which will make them easy targets to the next shark that cruises by. Knowing that grouper and most other bottom fish seek comfort in structure when the feel threatened, we need to account for the fact that there will be break-offs in our decision for how we make our leader assemblies.

When targeting strong fish that live in and around heavy cover, the likelihood of getting snagged on the bottom is high. So my preference is to set up the overall line system to have the weakest point be the knot that goes directly to the hook while also beefing up the line most exposed to getting weakened from bumping rough patches on the bottom (directly above the weight).

The Orris knot is my preferred choice to tie to the Perfection loop because it’s extremely fast to tie and is very strong (not quite as strong as the Palomar, but it’s stronger than any Loop knot I’ve tested so it’ll not be the weakest link). Note: Different line brands/types of course have different breaking points, so these values are just to serve as a rough estimate.

Grouper fishing is a fantastic way for a group of friends or a family to get out on the water and enjoy nature together… And given their popularity, we need to pay extra attention to take the best possible care of them so our future generations can continue to enjoy this great game fish as well as other structure oriented species that also be harmed by poorly designed leader rigs.

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2 finnsfishingtips.com - https://finnsfishingtips.com/what-does-grouper-taste-like/
3 uplandcoast.com - https://uplandcoast.com/grouper-taste/
4 linkrecovery.com - https://linkrecovery.com/topic/15475e-does-grouper-taste-fishy
5 www.michianahematologyoncology.com - https://www.michianahematologyoncology.com/miax-penny-oluxkr/archive.php
6 www.cookingfishmonger.com - http://www.cookingfishmonger.com/grouper-fish.html
7 fishingbooker.com - https://fishingbooker.com/blog/snapper-vs-grouper/
8 globalseafoods.com - https://globalseafoods.com/blogs/news/best-fish-for-someone-who-doesnt-like-fish
9 www.cookingfishmonger.com - http://www.cookingfishmonger.com/fish-taste-chart.html
10 www.epicurious.com - https://www.epicurious.com/expert-advice/fish-smells-fishy-trick-to-make-fish-smell-better-milk-article