However, if you cook one fillet of grouper fish, then you will get 240 calories inside. Thus, it is still preferred type of meat that you can try to consume when you want to pay attention on your calories intake.
This grouper fish is considered to gain a lot of protein content which is very important for your body condition. On one portion of this grouper fish which is around 3 touches on cooked condition, you will get 16.5 grams on the protein content inside.
Actually every day, your body will need around fifty grams on the protein content. Thus, this amount is actually already exceeding more than twenty-five percent of the needed protein nutrient by your body.
The omega 3 content is also able to lower the pressure of your blood as well as cholesterol level which both highly dangerous for your heart. In longer term this may cause even more serious damage which can lead to lethal heart diseases.
Especially since inside this fish, you will be able to find a lot of magnesium content. If you choose to cook fillet of grouper fish, then you will already get twenty percent on the magnesium content needed daily inside.
Furthermore, it will also able to make your blood pressure to be lower, thus your heart will be easily flow into the artery. That is why to add some vitamin supply for your body, it is better to get them from different source such as this grouper fish.
The reason is that this fish also contained a lot of iron inside. As you can see the nutrient inside the grouper fish will make your body become healthier.
Conversely, Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body for several years, so it takes longer to develop deficiency. Preformed vitamin A, also called Retinol, is found in animal products and has multiple functions: maintain healthy immune function, normal vision, Cell growth, Gene transcription and protein formation, Skin health, etc.
100 grams of Grouper Fish contains 143 IU of vitamin A, that’s the 5% of the daily recommended value for an adult. 100 grams of Grouper Fish contains 0.6 micrograms of Vitamin B12, that’s the 10% of the daily recommended value for an adult.
It plays an essential role in the production of energy from food, the conduction of nerve impulses and synthesis of nucleic acids. Vitamin B5 is known as antithetic, is really nice strengthening the immune system, enhance the level of hemoglobin in the human body and assists the liver in metabolizing toxic substances.
Folic acid (Vitamin B9) is essential for the proper functioning of the body and healthy living. It plays an important role in maintaining healthy digestive system, hair, skin, kidneys and eyes.
100 grams of Grouper Fish contains 9 micrograms of Vitamin B-9, that’s the 2% of the daily recommended value for an adult. This vital mineral is best known to strengthen bones, teeth, the heart, and slash your risk of developing a number of diseases like hypertension or seizures.
Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of highly complex metabolic processes including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and oxygen/electron transport. 100 grams of Grouper Fish contains 0.89 milligrams of iron, that’s the 5% of the daily recommended value for one person.
An adequate intake of potassium is important to maintain normal body growth, control the acid-base balance, build proteins, regulate digestive functioning, build muscle, and control the electrical activity of the heart. This mineral provides energy for almost all metabolic processes, being necessary for more than 300 chemical reactions in the human body.
The optimal sodium intake allows the creation of electrolytes and an essential ion present in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Zinc is a really vital mineral for the human body as it helps in regulation of the cells' production in the immune system.
The health benefits of Zinc include reduction of stress levels, control of diabetes, digestion, proper functioning of immune system, and energy metabolism. This Mineral regulates various physiologic pathways, such as iron metabolism, connective tissue maturation, neurotransmission and energy production.
Manganese mineral is important in the healthy bone structure metabolism and formation -helping to create essential enzymes for building bones- play a key role in the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Selenium is an essential trace mineral that the body needs to stay healthy.
Scientists and researchers suggests that Selenium prevent certain cancers such as stomach, colon, bladder, lung, skin, esophagus, and prostate. Normal valueWarning valueDanger value An average adult needs 2,000 calories per day to maintain bodily functions, so you may have the 5% of your total daily needs from 100 grams of Grouper Fish (92 calories / 100 grams).
Production, raw, mixed species, grouper Food category Finish and Shellfish Products MineralsNutrientAmountDV Calcium, Ca 27.00 mg2 % Copper, Cu 0.020 mg2 % Iron, Fe 0.89 mg5 % Magnesium, Mg 31.00 mg8 % Manganese, Mn 0.014 mg1 % Phosphorus, P 162.00 mg23 % Potassium, K 483.00 mg10 % Selenium, Se 36.5 mcg66 % Sodium, Na 53.00 mg2 % Zinc, Zn 0.48 mg4 % Fish, raw, mixed species, grouper contains 92 calories per 100 g serving. Fish, raw, mixed species, grouper contains 0.2 g of saturated fat and 37 mg of cholesterol per serving.
Fish, raw, mixed species, grouper belong to 'Finish and Shellfish Products' food category. Nutrition facts for Fish, raw, mixed species, grouper, recommended daily values and analysis.
Daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet and 155 lbs (70 kg) body weight (change). Actual daily nutrient requirements might be different based on your age, gender, level of physical activity, medical history and other factors.
As you know when you are on strict diet, then you would want to consume food that has fewer calories. Do not worry as the grouper fish does not contain carbohydrate thus it only has fewer calories compared to different meat types.
When you take a portion of this food fish, which usually around three touches in raw state, then you will only add 100 calories in your diet. But if you choose to eat one whole fillet of this grouper fish in cooked state then the calories would be 240 instead.
As you can see, it is still a low number, thus you can maintain your diet easily when you consume grouper fish. You should know that not only protein will give you a lot of energy but it is also useful for your make your body healthy.
For your information, your body will need fifty gram on this protein content to become healthy. And inside a portion of this food fish, which usually around three touches in cooked state, then you will only add 16.5 grams protein for your body.
As you can see even when you only eat small amount of this food fish, you will be able to fulfill more than 25 percentage of what your body need. If you want to fulfill your entire percentage of what your body need then you can easily do it by eating one whole fillet in cooked state.
Another benefit that this nutrient gives to your health is to decrease the level of cholesterol as well as blood pressure. And the most important benefit is that this nutrient is able to prevent plaque to form inside the arteries.
Furthermore, the available magnesium content in a fillet of this grouper fish is already able to fulfill twenty percent of what you need every day. And if you eat grouper fish, then you can easily get this vitamin content for your body.
Biological Features Body elongate, not very compressed; teeth on midsize of lower jaw in 2 rows; nostrils subequal; Serra at corner of properly moderately enlarged; fourth dorsal spine usually longest; membranes of spinors portion of dorsal fin incised; caudal fin rounded; pelvic fins not reaching anus. Light grayish brown dorsally, shading to whitish on side and centrally, with numerous brownish orange or brownish yellow spots the size of pupil or smaller on head and body; 5 slightly diagonal grayish brown bars on head and body which bifurcate centrally, the first 4 extending basally into dorsal fin; brownish orange spots on body tend to be arranged in rows parallel to dark bars, this more evident on smaller than larger fish; large dark grayish brown blotches usually present on head, the most prominent behind eye and on operate; fins whitish to light dusky with brownish orange to brown spots except distally on spinors portion of dorsal fin, caudal fin and pectoral.
Unpublished data record maximum weight as 32 kg and length of male at maturity of 120 cm TL. Historical Background Groupers are generally cultured in floating net cages or earthen ponds, but cage culture is more common in Southeast Asia.
In 1979, the Pelf Station of the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute (Teri) started artificial propagation by using hormone-inducing technique. E. Coioides is one of the two major cultured groupers in Taiwan P C. The National Mari culture Center, Bahrain has conducted mass fry production trials of this species since 1992.
Grouper pond production is becoming an attractive alternative to intensive shrimp culture in countries where management problems have forced growers to abandon shrimp farming. Main Producer Countries The map shown below is constructed from FAO reported statistics for this species.
Habitat and Biology Epimetheus coincides occurs in the western Indian Ocean from the southern Red Sea to Natal and east to the western Pacific where it is distributed from Ryukyu Islands to New South Wales. It ranges east into Oceania only to Paley in the Northern Hemisphere and Fiji in the Southern.
Orange-spotted groupers inhabit turbid coastal reefs and are often found in brackish water over mud and rubble. Juveniles are common in the shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves, feeding on small fish, shrimp, and crabs.
They probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so and the eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic. Seed Supply and Hatchery Techniques Brooders of E. coincides are stocked in separate 50 m 3 tanks.
Most of the brooders are collected from the wild and reared for 1 to 7 years using seawater at a constant temperature of 27-28 °C and 45 ‰, following standard culture methods. The fish are fed with frozen sardines, mackerels, cuttlefish, squids and top-shell clams because these foods have high contents of cholesterol, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
At the National Mari culture Center in Bahrain orange spotted grouper eggs are collect following standard methods. Under a constant temperature regime of 27-28 °C, natural spawning was maintained during a 33-month period between October 1992 and July 1995 and the total number of eggs collected during that period was 279 million.
Daily floating egg rates varied from 5.6 to 69.6 per cent (average 36.8 percent). Whenever brooders do not spawn naturally, mature females and males are selected from bloodstock tanks and injected with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) at 700 and 500 IU/kg By respectively.
There were over ten grouper breeder farms raising >10 000 spawners in Southern Taiwan P.C. The eggs are incubated in the same tank with moderate aeration and running water until they hatch.
Newly open-mouth larvae are fed once a day with enriched Fractions plicatilis, Sportier of 160-180 µm size at a density of 5-6 conifers/ml. At TL 6-25 mm, the larvae are also fed enriched Artemis Naples to satiation for 1 to 3 hrs once in the afternoon.
Hatchery reared or wild-caught fry are nursed in tanks or APA nets until they reach 6 cm. Once natural food is abundant, adult tilapia are added at a stocking density of 5 000-10 000/ha to produce fingerlings to serve as live prey for the groupers.
Grouper fingerlings (~6 cm TL) are added at 5 000-10 000/ha at least a month after the release of adult tilapia. Sorting and grading of the fingerlings is carried out weekly to prevent cannibalism and to minimize competition for space and food.
If tilapia fingerlings are not abundant, supplementary feeding is carried out using chopped fish at 5 per cent By/day, half early in the morning and the rest late in the afternoon. Fish are fed with appropriate fresh or frozen chopped fish daily at 10 per cent By or with pelleted feeds 3 per cent By, half early in the morning and half late in the afternoon.
0.5 per cent vitamin and mineral premix is added to the properly thawed trash fish before feeding. Floating net cages should be moved to a new site every 2-3 years of culture to allow deteriorating bottom conditions to recover.
The duration of culture in the grow-out phase is 4-7 months, depending on the preferred size at harvest. Fish are harvested by seine in the early morning or late afternoon.
The water is disturbed (agitated) two hours before harvest to prevent occurrence of rigid muscles in the fish. It is advisable to install 8×2x1.5 or 8×4x1.5 m net cages (25 mm mesh) in the ponds to hold fish temporarily.
The net cage should be inspected for any damage and then lifted slowly from one side to concentrate the fish in one corner. Care must be taken to avoid loss of scales or causing lesions on fish during harvesting.
Handling and Processing Harvested fish are stocked in an aerated conditioning tank. To slow metabolic activity, the water temperature is slowly lowered to 20 °C (2-3 °C/hr) by adding crushed ice in plastic bags or by using cooling pumps.
The bags are packed in styrofoam boxes to which an adequate amount of frozen gel packs, ice bags or frozen water in sealed plastic bottles wrapped in old newspapers is added to keep the temperature low during transportation. This method is suitable for air transport for a period not exceeding 8 hours after packing.
Other large factors are feed (30 percent), followed by administrative expenses and fuel and power requirements for heater/chillers and automatic feeders. Diseases and Control Measures In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation. DiseaseAgentTypeSyndromeMeasuresBlister diseaseIridovirus GIV-2VirusHighly localized severe inflammation of epidermal and dermal layer; dermis necrotized, containing exudation and hemorrhagic infiltration at the area of intact layer; presence of icosahedral to round-shaped virions with a diameter of 180-200 nm in infected liver, spleen, kidney and lesions Good prophylaxis & good husbandry conditionsVibriosisVibrio SPP. BacteriaSignificant numbers of monogenean parasites causing gill lesions observedVaccination, good prophylaxis & good husbandry conditionsParasitic InfestationsCryptobia SP, Scythia SP.
Neobenedenia Giselle Graphic SP. Protozoans Monogeneans Isopods and gill lesions; pigmentation; ulceration; skin area haemorrhagesGood prophylaxis & good husbandry conditionsSwim-Bladder SyndromeUndiagnosed or unknownOver-inflation of the swim bladder; loss of buoyancy control Good prophylaxis & good husbandry conditions Popeye (Exopthalmosis)Undiagnosed or unknownExtremely bulging eyes No known successful treatment Suppliers of Pathology Expertise. Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Department of Fisheries, Kasetsart University Campus, Natural, Bangkok, Thailand.
National Mari culture Center, Directorate of Marine Resources, Bahrain. Generally, groupers are a popular food fish and it is estimated that the market demand may reach 100 000 tonnes per year in 2020.
Therefore, sustainable aquaculture of groupers and their related species deserves further development. Restaurants display live groupers in Aquarian fitted with water recirculation systems.
As production techniques have improved and off-flavours have been controlled in Taiwan P.C., Singapore and Japan by keeping the market-sized fish in tanks with running water for two days without feeding, orange-spotted groupers have moved into the mainstream seafood markets of developed countries. In highly industrialized countries, small markets for live groupers or frozen imports developed among immigrant communities.
With the appearance of fresh grouper fillets from tropical countries, new markets opened in upper echelon restaurants, casual dining restaurant chains, hypermarkets and discount stores. Virtually all casual dining restaurant chains in the Orient feature groupers, which are an ideal addition to the menu due to their reasonable price, year-round supply, mild, delicious flavor and flexibility in preparation.
China, a major exporter of groupers, has great potential for market development to supply a rapidly growing middle class. Groupers are considered as a high-value species with a high potential for contributing to the economic development of these countries.
The expanding trade in live groupers of various ages and stages, whether for aquaculture or for seafood restaurants, has increased demand since 2006. The development of new faster-growing strains through selective breeding techniques and use of Intensive cost-effective recirculation systems are imperative to increase the production.
The main issues constraining the further development of orange spotted grouper farming include: Although grouper culture is widespread in Asia and the Pacific, its continued development is constrained by the limited availability of fingerlings.
Most economies, except China Taiwan P.C., rely almost totally on wild-caught fry and fingerlings for stocking. The inadequate supply of seed is further aggravated by lack of appropriate handling techniques during collection, transport and storage of collected fish, and sometimes by an unregulated management of the wild stocks.
There is a lack of appropriate techniques for efficient grouper culture to marketable sizes. A major production constraint is heavy mortality of groupers during the collection and culture phases due to handling stress and diseases.
Research to solve these problems is under way in Japan, Taiwan P.C., Thailand and Bahrain. Used during production mainly to prevent and treat bacterial disease, antibiotics are leading to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are pathogenic to humans.
The development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is considered to be one of the most serious risks to human health at the global level. Many countries around the world have introduced, changed or tightened national regulations on the use of antibiotics, in general and within the aquaculture sector.
Integrated efforts could help to explain the development of intensive productions systems and answer questions raised by the public. Thus, they are the most suitable people to interact with farm operatives and government inspectors in examining the animals and deciding whether they are showing signs of good health and well-being.
The demand for wild seed has led to unsustainable and illegal practices such as the use of cyanide to capture large numbers of seed with relatively low investment in time and effort. Grouper fisheries that are based on illegal or destructive fishing practices underline the urgent need for habitat protection and sustainable utilization of natural resources.
Artificial propagation of the grouper, Epimetheus skills at the marine finish hatchery in Tanning Doming, Terengganu, Malaysia. In: W. Fischer & G. Bianchi (eds), FAO Species Identification Sheets, Western Indian Ocean.
Tan (eds), Proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-30 October 1992, Singapore, pp. Hatchery production of grouper, Epimetheus coincides, and rabbit fish, Signs canaliculatus, at the National Mari culture Center, Bahrain: 1995.
National Mari culture Center, Directorate of Fisheries, Ministry of Works & Agriculture, State of Bahrain. Hatchery production of the grouper, Epimetheus coincides, at the National Mari culture Center, Bahrain: 1993-1994.
National Mari culture Center, Directorate of Fisheries, Ministry of Works & Agriculture, State of Bahrain. Sexual maturation, length and age in some species of Kuwait fish related to their suitability for aquaculture.
Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Performed: Serranidae: Epinephrine), with descriptions of five new species. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Manila, Philippines.