The dorsal profile of the head is flat to slightly convex between the eyes. It has a rounded, finely serrated properly which has a fleshy lower edge.
The membranes of the dorsal fin has distinct indentations between its spines. The dorsal fin has 9 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays.
The color of the body is orange-red to reddish brown with many small bright blue spots which cover the head, body and the dorsal, anal and caudal fins. The color of the juveniles is orange to yellow with fewer widely separated faint blue spots.
They attain a maximum total length of 50 centimeters (20 in). Cephalopods minima is found in clear water where there are coastal and offshore coral reefs, it prefers exposed rather than protected areas.
Like other groupers this species is predatory; over 80% of its diet consists of small fish, predominantly sea oldies (Pseudanthias squamipinnis) which are ambushed by the coral hind in a sudden rush up from the substrate. They form harems consisting of a single male and up to 12 females.
The male defends the harem's territory which is around 475 square meters (5,110 sq ft) in area, each female has a smaller territory which she defends against other females. Coral hinds are protogynous hermaphrodite, and they change sex from female to male.
The male patrols the territory and visits each female, swimming parallel to each other when they meet. Cephalopods minima is an important species in commercial fisheries at the local level and is caught using hook and line, fish traps and spears.
It is a colorful species and is popular in public Aquarian and forms a minor part of the aquarium trade. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). ^ Coral Cod, Cephalopods minima (Formal, 1775)”.
For larval leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopards) a tenfold increase in survival, in addition to more rapid development, was observed (Burgess, Allan, House, & Santos, 2019) (Melianawati, Stunt, & Surya, 2013). Despite these results, setting up cope pod production units has not been an option for most hatcheries, as they require much work and don’t always produce a steady supply.
However, due to companies like Feed * now supplying the Asian market, cope pod eggs can be obtained and hatched on demand similarly as Artemis cysts. One of these, Eco Aquaculture Asia in Thailand, reported that including cope pods in their hatchery feeds had led to stronger and faster growing grouper fry being produced, ultimately helping to increase their production levels.
For tiger grouper a significant increase in enzymatic (protease) response was demonstrated when cope pod Naples were added to the diet, raising the enzyme activity by 25.8 percent compared to traditional live feeds such as conifers and Artemis (Rimmed, et al., 2011). A similar result was seen for larval coral trout, where both a full and a partial inclusion of cope pods increased the activity of the digestive enzymes' protease, amylase and lipase significantly (Melianawati, Prating, Puniawati, & Astute, 2015).
In addition to ARA and EPA, the fatty acid DHA has been identified to be of crucial importance for tiger grouper larvae (Rimmed, et al., 2011). When starved, the larvae conserve this to a higher degree than other fatty acids, indicating how essential it is for early larval growth and development.
This could provide another reason why cope pods boost survival, growth and development of grouper larvae, as they naturally contain high level of these fatty acids, commonly reaching over 25 percent of the total lipid content (van der Mean, Olsen, Hare, & John, 2008). The newly hatched Naples of Acadia tons are close to 100 µm in length, making them perfect as a feed for the larvae of most grouper species.
In nature, cope pods are considered the most important group of zooplankton, forming a vital link between primary production and fish larvae. Studies on gut content in larvae of coastal tropical fish revealed that the majority relied on cope pods as their primary source of feed (Tampa, MacKinnon, Meek an, & McCormick, 2007).
In combination with a nutritional composition that is ideal for first feeding, this easy solution of introducing cope pods into commercial grouper aquaculture could greatly improve the productivity of hatcheries in the future. Burgess, A. I., Allan, C. K., House, R., & Santos, M. D. (2019) Increasing survival a growth in larval leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopards) using intensively cultured Parvocalanus crassirostris Naples.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries Melianawati, R., Stunt, N. W., & Surya, K. (2013) The use of cope pods to improve juveniles production of coral trout Plectropomus leopards (Labeled, 1802). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 237-244 Melianawati, R., Prating, R., Puniawati, N., & Astute, P. (2015) The effect of various kind of live feeds to digestive enzymes' activity of coral trout Plectropomus leopards (Labeled, 1802) larvae.
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 243-257 van Banned, J., & An, G. (2018) Super grouper : advances in RAS production in Asia. Not all errands are called 'groupers'; the family also includes the sea basses.
The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera : Epimetheus and Mycteroperca. In addition, the species classified in the small genera Hyperion, Completes, Dermatologist, Graciela, Scotia, and Trio are also called 'groupers'.
However, some hamlets (genus Affected), the hinds (genus Cephalopods), the lyre tails (genus Various) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Nippon, Paranoia) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serrated genera have common names involving the word grouper “. Nonetheless, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephrine.
Groupers are Telecasts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth. They can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and the largest is the Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara) which has been weighed at 399 kilograms (880 pounds) and a length of 2.43 m (7 ft 11 1 2 in), though in such a large group, species vary considerably.
They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx. They habitually eat fish, octopuses, and crustaceans.
Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, such as the giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus) are unconfirmed. They also use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, jetting it out through their gills.
The word grouper is from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language. In New Zealand, “groper” refers to a type of wreck fish, Poly prion oxygenate, which goes by the Mori name haiku.
In the Middle East, the fish is known as hammer ', and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region. The species in the tribes Grammistini and Diploprionini secrete a mucus like toxin in their skin called Rammstein and when they are confined in a restricted space and subjected to stress the mucus produces a foam which is toxic to nearby fish, these fishes are often called soap fishes.
The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, its fitness would decrease.
If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a reproductive strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times.
The evolution of gonochorism is linked to group spawning high amounts of habitat cover. Both group spawning and habitat cover increase the likelihood of a smaller male to reproduce in the presence of large males.
Fitness of male groupers in environments where competitive exclusion of smaller males is not possible is correlated with sperm production and thus testicle size. Gonochoristic groupers have larger testes than protogynous groupers (10% of body mass compared to 1% of body mass), indicating the evolution of gonochorism increased male grouper fitness in environments where large males were unable to competitively exclude small males from reproducing.
Many groupers are important food fish, and some of them are now farmed. Unlike most other fish species which are chilled or frozen, groupers are usually sold live in markets.
Groupers are commonly reported as a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning. DNA barcoding of grouper species might help in controlling Ciguatera fish poisoning since fish are easily identified, even from meal remnants, with molecular tools.
Malaysian newspaper The Star reported a 180 kg (400 lb) grouper being caught off the waters near in the Strait of Malacca in January 2008. Shenzhen News in China reported that a 1.8 m (6 ft) grouper swallowed a 1.0 m (3 ft 3 in) white tip reef shark at the Fuzhou Sea World aquarium.
In September 2010, a Costa Rican newspaper reported a 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) grouper in Cieneguita, Limón. The weight of the fish was 250 kg (550 lb) and it was lured using one kilogram of bait.
In November 2013, a 310 kg (680 lb) grouper had been caught and sold to a hotel in Dong yuan, China. ^ a b c d e Richard van der Loan; William N. Scholar & Ronald Cricket (2014).
^ Share, Redoubt; Honer, Andrea; Ait-El-Djoudi, Karim; Cricket, Hans (2006). “Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea”.
“Rammstein, the skin toxin of soap fishes, and it significance in the classification of the Grammistidae” (PDF). Publications of the Set Marine Biological Laboratory.
^ Scholar, W. N.; R. Cricket & R. van der Loan (eds.). A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: Evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.
Estimates of body sizes at maturation and at sex change, and the spawning seasonality and sex ratio of the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus Quercus, f. Epinephelidae). Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish.
A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: Incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew. Sex change in fishes: Its process and evolutionary mechanism.
Evidence of gonochorism in a grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. ^ Molly, P. P., N. B. Goodwin, I. M. Cote, J. D. Reynolds and M. J. G. Gage.
Sperm competition and sex change: A comparative analysis across fishes. ^ Crib, T. H., Bray, R. A., Wright, T. & Michelin, S. 2002: The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephrine): knowledge, nature and evolution.
^ Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Box shall, G. A., Bray, R. A., Morale, F., Triples, J.-P. & Whittington, I. D. 2010: An annotated list of parasites (Isopod, Coppola, Monotone, Diogenes, Custody and Nematode) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish. Folio Parasitologica, 57, 237-262. Doi : 10.14411/fp.2010.032 PDF ^ “Most consumers prefer to purchase live groupers in fish markets”.
^ Schooling, C., Kissinger, D. D., Detail, A., Fraud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2014: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. ^ ^ “Photos: Fishermen catch wildly huge 686-pound fish, sell it to hotel”.
Groupers are solitary carnivores that hunt near the bottom usually at dusk. Juvenile fish become adults and some change shape or their color.
Click the image(s) to explore further or hover over to get a better view! Natural Environment: Inhabits drop-offs and steep channel slopes and is found in 15 – 500 foot depths (5 – 150 m) where it feeds on smaller fishes and crustaceans.
Will slowly become more outgoing, yet will pester tank mates and eat those small enough to be swallowed. Therefore, a meaty diet such as enriched chopped fresh fish or shrimp flesh, and/or frozen carnivore foods should be fed once every other day.
May be difficult to feed in the early days in the aquarium and if so, (if small live marine fish are not available) live glass/grass shrimp and/or small crabs, e.g., fiddler crabs may be needed to sustain the fish. FYI: Not safe with smaller fishes, crabs, and small ornamental crustaceans.
Enhanced filtration is recommended as these fish produce a large amount of waste products. Nevertheless, feeding small freshwater live fish should be considered a special treat and not become a steady diet since they lack the fatty acids that marine fish need to stay healthy.
Also, keep in mind that feeder goldfish, which cannot survive but a few minutes in seawater, also carry many bacteria, fungi, and protozoa that can cause parasitic and infectious diseases. Furthermore, feeder goldfish can also cause blockage in the digestive track and/or kidney along with liver damage due to fatty degeneration in the consuming fish.
In fact, fatty liver degeneration is a common cause of death in cases where marine fish are fed a diet that primarily consists of goldfish (as with Lionfish for example). Michelle R. Helped AF, Ashley J. Williams B, David J. Welch BC, Campbell R. Davies D, Samantha Adams B, Gary Carlos E and Bruce D. Capstone D + Author Affiliations- Author Affiliations A School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.
B Fishing and Fisheries Research Center, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. E Marine Research Laboratory, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Ta's.
Coral Hinds have small eyes that are mounted near the top of the head, which is typical for editorial fish. They can reach 17” (44 cm) and groupers are known to live from 9 to 37 in the wild, possibly longer in captivity with proper care.
The Cephalopods genus, commonly referred to as “Hinds,” contain smaller species of groupers which are more appropriate for home aquariums. They range in size from around 9” to 22.5,” and at least 8 of these species range from 9 to 11.8.” The Coral Hind, sometimes referred to as the Minima Grouper, can be confused with the Vermilion Hind, which has spots that are less dense and only grows to 11.8.” The coolest behavior observed by the Coral Hind, observed in the Red Sea, is how it will follow octopuses and Gray Morays who are foraging for food.
If one of them flushes out a prey fish, the Coral Hind will get a free dinner! The second challenge would be filtration, since groupers are big eaters and produce copious amounts of waste, requiring a good quality oversized skimmer and two canister filters like Exam or Fluvial.
The canister filters should be cleaned twice as often as the directions suggest in order to keep them working effectively. A slender fish and even eels that are the same length as your Coral Hind will be consumed.
As the Peacock Grouper ingests a long and narrow tank mate, the prey fish/eel coils up in its belly. At times, they will try to eat a fish they can’t quite get down their throat, then the aquarium will have to lend a hand to extract the unfortunate tank mate.
Other tank mates are safer if they are deep bodied and over 1/3 the size of the adult Coral Hind. If attempting to keep with cleaner shrimp from the Lyman or Steno pus genus, add them first.
Groupers may still possibly eat these shrimp and cleaner wrasses if they are not well-fed. Coral Hinds need to be the last fish added to an aggressive community tank.
Well arranged live rock work will help them to adjust and will help provide the biological filtration which needs to be aided by a strong skimmer and two efficient canister filters. They prefer to hide under ledges and in caves, but will sit at the bottom of the tank near their hideout as they become more comfortable.
They are found in southern Japan and then south to Lord Howe Island. In the wild, Coral Hinds feed mostly on Lyre tail Antics (Pseudanthias squamipinnis), but will also eat Tories (Canthigaster margarita ta), Cardinal fish (Aragon), Blue Green Chromes (Chromes irides), sweepers, tangs and Stenosis SP.
Coral Hinds in the Red Sea hunt with Gray Morays (Sidereal rise) and octopuses who are foraging for food. Similar to others in this genus, juveniles probably prefer hiding deep within dense coral thickets.
As adults, Coral Hinds are in harems that consist of one male and 2 to 12 females. These harems will cover 475 square miles which are divided into secondary territories and defended by a female.
Coral Hinds have small eyes that are mounted near the top of the head, which is typical for editorial fish. An adult will take on a mottled appearance that is a mix of bright red and orange (juvenile coloring) when hunting or interacting with other hinds.
They can reach 16” (41 cm) and groupers are known to live from 9 to 37 in the wild, possibly longer in captivity with proper care. Provide them with a tank that is at least 100 gallons and several hiding places within the live rock.
The tank should have a heavy-duty skimmer and two external canister filters that are cleaned often, due to the large amount of waste this fish produces. Feeding groupers fresh water fish will cause health issues if continued for too long.
Do not house them with other Coral Hinds, although they will be fine with other groupers as long as the tank is large enough. If an individual will not eat, offer feeder fish or ghost shrimp.
Once they are eating, quickly switch over to prepared foods such as freeze-dried or frozen krill, mys id shrimp and pellets for carnivores. Also offer a varied diet of raw crustacean and fish flesh which can be obtained from the grocery store.
Large Tanks 100 gallons and over, once water is aged and stable can be changed 20% to 30% every 6 weeks depending on bio load. Large Tanks 100 gallons and over, once water is aged and stable can be changed 10% bi-weekly to 20% monthly, depending on bio load.
In a 100 gallon tank (378 liters), arrange live rock, forming several places like overhangs and caves for the Coral Hind to hide, especially if the fish is a juvenile. They may be induced to spawn indoors if they are conditioned with more feedings, then the temperature is raised 2F, and there is a longer daylight period.
Coral Hinds, although found in harems in the wild, are best kept singly in a captive environment. In very large 500 to 1000 gallon systems, outside saltwater ponds or public aquariums, a few females can be kept with a male.
Also, arrange the live rock to provide barriers where their vision of each other is blocked from their normal hangout. Keep Coral Hinds with fish of similar size if they are not as deep bodied, such as tangs and trigger fish who should be at least 13” long and fish who are deep bodied like butterfly fish and angelfish who are at least 7” long.
The only time the Coral Hind becomes a threat, is if it is full-grown and these other fish are not, and they fit in their mouth! Figure out what kind of water quality you can maintain and only buy corals that are not picky.
This starts at dusk, with a peak in spawning happening at the new or full moon. Males will spawn with each of the four or five females in the same night, with both releasing their gametes into the water column.
A culture was done on wild-caught groupers and there were 11 to 16 different species of parasites found on their bodies, including nematodes and cryptocaryon. The most easily cured parasite is Crypt (salt water ICH), but they are all treatable if caught in a timely manner.
ONEMA is often contracted when the aquarium doesn’t lower their salinity to the proper level of 1.009. The ONEMA parasite thrives in mid-level brackish water salinity, which is a specific gravity of around 1.013 to 1.020.
Quick Cure and other 37% Formalin products will work perfectly well in both salinity ranges, but the lower 1.009 will help with the oxygen level. Anything you add to your tank from another system that has not been properly cleaned or quarantined, including live rock, corals, equipment and fish can introduce diseases.
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Performed (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy bassets) > Epinephrine Etymology: Epimetheus:Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 – 100 m (Ref.
Indolent Pacific: Red Sea south to at least Durban, South Africa and eastward to Paley and Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Bravura Sea (Ref. Recently reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel (Ref.
Interorbital width 5.0-6.2 in HL; properly with enlarged Serra at angle and a broad shallow notch just above angle; upper edge of pendulum straight or somewhat convex; maxilla reaches to or slightly past a vertical at rear edge of eye; upper jaw length 17-20% of SL; mid lateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of subequal teeth; gill makers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-17; pyloric ceca 50-60; lateral body scales rough, with minute auxiliary scales (body scales steroid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cyclone scales); lateral-line scales 58-65; lateral-line tubes of anterior scales branched in adults. Color: head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish centrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body, and median fins; body with 5 faint, irregular, oblique, dark bars which bifurcate centrally (irregular H-shaped bars); back with 3-4 blackish saddles; orange spots become poorly defined and darker with growth (Ref.
Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs.
Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref.
Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for agriculture (Ref. Caught with hook-and-line, traps, trawls, and lift nets.
Common and expensive in markets of the region; sold fresh and kept alive at restaurants in Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan Province of China) (Ref. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date. Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
82805): PD 50 = 0.5000 . Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01025 – 0.01347), b=3.04 (3.01 – 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LCR estimates for this species (Ref.
Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies. 120179): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years (K=0.17; TM=2-3; tax=22; FEC=43,618).