Black Grouper With Blue Spots

Maria Johnson
• Monday, 02 November, 2020
• 10 min read

The Peacock Hind is a large, deep bodied fish, covered with small, bright, blue spots edged in black. Peacock Hinds have small eyes that are mounted near the top of the head, which is typical for editorial fish.

argus cephalopholis wikipedia grouper spotted wikimedia
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)


They can reach 17” (44 cm) and groupers are known to live from 9 to 37 in the wild, possibly longer in captivity with proper care. Peacock Hinds were introduced in the 1950s to the Hawaiian Islands as a possible food source, although today, most carry ciguatera poisoning (causes neurological disease) and they are off the menu in this area.

The Cephalopods genus, commonly referred to as “Hinds,” contain smaller species of groupers which are more appropriate for home aquariums. Upon closer examination, the Peacock Hind has a wide, bright, blue edging on the fins.

The Starry Hind (C. Polyspila) is also similar, yet has smaller and more numerous white or light blue spots, has spots on the chest area, and does not have the blue margins on the fins. The coolest behavior observed by the Peacock Hind is how it will follow octopuses and Gray Morays who are foraging for food.

If one of them flushes out a prey fish, the Peacock Hind will get a free dinner! Peacock Hinds will also hide within large schools of Parrot fish which enables them to get very close to their pray without being seen.

The second challenge would be filtration, since groupers are big eaters, and produce copious amounts of waste, requiring a good quality oversized skimmer and two canister filters like Exam or Fluvial, cleaned twice as often as the directions suggest keeping them working effectively. As the Peacock Grouper ingests a long and narrow tank mate, the prey fish/eel coils up in its belly.

(Source: www.youtube.com)

Even the Gray Moray Eel, which the Peacock Hind hunts with in the wild can become dinner if they are not careful! At times, they will try to eat a fish they can’t quite get down their throat, and the aquarium will have to lend a hand to extract the unfortunate tank mate.

Other tank mates are safest if they are deep bodied and of similar size or larger. If attempting to keep with cleaner shrimp from the Lyman or Steno pus genus, add them first.

Peacock Hinds need to be the last fish added to an aggressive community tank. They prefer to hide under ledges and in caves, but will sit at the bottom of the tank near their hideout as they become more comfortable.

They are covered from nose to tail fin in bright blue spots that are edged in black, except the area of the chest in front of the pectoral fins, which is spotless. Report Broken Video Juvenile Peacock Hind in captivity.

This is an excellent example of how tiny juvenile Peacock Hinds, or Blue Spot Groupers can be! Add as the last member of an aggressive community reef or fish only tank and provide places for them to hide.

grouper spotted fish aquarium saltwater groupers
(Source: www.marinefishez.com)

Other creatures they have been known to consume, according to the region are Dusky Tangs (Acanthus nigrofuscus), Convict Tangs (A. Triostegus), Purple Tangs (Nebraska Tantrum), Sail fin Tangs (Z. Desjardinii), Orange Bristle tooth Tangs (Ctenochaetus stratus), Iridescent Cardinal Fish (Aragon kallopterus), Orange Lined Trigger fish (Baristas undulates), Red Speckled Pennies (Cirripectes various), Arc Eye Hawkish (Paracirrhites arcades), Six-line Wrasses (Pseudocheilinus hexataenia), Pterocaesio Tile fish, Hawaiian Squirrel fish (Sargocentron xantherythrus), Belted Wrasses (Stethojulis Alberta), Lyre tail Antics (Pseudanthias squamipinnis), Plunger’s Wrasse (Thalassemia klunzingeri), Sweepers, Blue Green Chromes (Chromes irides), Pseudogrammas, Mackerels, Gobi es, Gray Morays (Sidereal rise), Dam selfish, crabs, decayed shrimp, mantis shrimp, and spiny lobsters. As adults, Peacock Hinds are found alone, or in harems that consist of one male with as many as six females.

The loser, typically the weaker fish, will then swim off, leaving the harem of females for the victor. The Blue spotted Hind is not a solid color near the front half of the fish, but has mottling and irregular pale bars.

Peacock Hinds are easy to care for as long as their needs are met. Some websites suggest the tank needs to be 250 gallons, and this is not out of the question, especially if you are considering more than one grouper, since these large fish produce a lot of waste and higher water volume will help keep up the water quality.

The tank should have a heavy duty skimmer due to the large amount of waste this fish produces. Feeding groupers fresh water fish will cause health issues if continued for too long.

Do not house them with other Peacock Hinds, although they will be fine with other groupers as long as the tank is large enough. Peacock Hinds are easy to care for as long as their needs are met.

grouper bluespotted fish whats whatsthatfish
(Source: www.whatsthatfish.com)

Some websites suggest the tank needs to be 250 gallons, and this is not out of the question, since these large fish produce a lot of waste and higher water volume will help keep up the water quality. The tank should have a heavy duty skimmer due to the large amount of waste this fish produces.

Feeding groupers fresh water fish will cause health issues if continued for too long. Do not house them with other Peacock Hinds, although they will be fine with other groupers as long as the tank is large enough.

Once they are eating, quickly switch over to prepared foods such as freeze-dried or frozen krill, mys id shrimp and pellets for carnivores. Also offer a varied diet of raw crustacean and fish flesh which can be obtained from the grocery store.

Groupers are hardy and fairly easy to keep, although they do need good filtration. Large Tanks 100 gallons and over, once water is aged and stable can be changed 20% to 30% every 6 weeks depending on bio load.

Large Tanks 100 gallons and over, once water is aged and stable can be changed 10% bi-weekly to 20% monthly, depending on bio load. In a 180 gallon tank (681 liters), arrange live rock, forming several places for the Peacock Hind to hide, especially if the fish is a juvenile.

grouper spotted bora coral swimming between
(Source: dreamstime.com)

Each grouper in the tank will need 2 places to hide to help tone down aggression. They may be induced to spawn indoors if they are conditioned with more feedings, then the temperature is raised 2F, and there is a longer daylight period.

Peacock Hinds, although found in harems in the wild, are best kept singly in a captive environment. In very large 500 to 1000 gallon systems, outside saltwater ponds or public aquariums, a few females can be kept with a male.

Also, arrange the live rock to provide barriers where their vision of each other is blocked from their normal hangout. Keep Peacock Hinds with fish of similar size if they are not as deep bodied, such as tangs and trigger fish who should be at least 13” long and fish who are deep bodied like butterfly fish and angelfish who are at least 7” long.

The only time the Peacock Hind becomes a threat, is if it is full-grown and these other fish are not, and they fit in their mouth! Figure out what kind of water quality you can maintain and only buy corals that are not picky.

Peacock Hinds have a much larger territory than many other groupers, which on average, is over 16,000 square feet! Males will spawn with each of the four or five females in the same night, with both releasing their gametes into the water column.

grouper spotted flickr aquarium camera filter
(Source: www.flickr.com)

A culture was done on wild-caught groupers and there were 11 to 16 different species of parasites found on their bodies, including nematodes and cryptocaryon. The most easily cured parasite is Crypt (salt water ICH), but they are all treatable if caught in a timely manner.

ONEMA is often contracted when the aquarium doesn’t lower their salinity to the proper level of 1.009. The ONEMA parasite thrives in mid-level brackish water salinity, which is a specific gravity of around 1.013 to 1.020.

Quick Cure and other 37% Formalin products will work perfectly well in both salinity ranges, but the lower 1.009 will help with the oxygen level. Anything you add to your tank from another system that has not been properly cleaned or quarantined, including live rock, corals, equipment and fish can introduce diseases.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Cephalopods Species: Binomial name Cephalopods Argus Synonyms Epimetheus Argus (Schneider, 1801) Bodies Gustavus Bloch, 1790 Serra nus Gustavus (Bloch, 1790) Bodies jacobevertsen Labeled, 1802 Serra nus master Valentines, 1828 Serra nus immune Montgolfier, 1857 Serra nus thirties Saville-Kent, 1893 Part of the familySerranidae, which also includes the antics and sea basses.

They come from the Indo-Pacific which is variously a commercial game fish, an invasive species, and occasionally an aquarium resident. Its species name comes from its resemblance to the “a hundred staring eyes” of the monster Argus in Greek mythology.

grouper spotted miniata cephalopholis shutterstock
(Source: www.shutterstock.com)

Larger specimens sometimes develop four to six lighter vertical bars on the back half of its body. Cephalopods Argus, Vilamendhoo Maldives The species is extremely widely distributed, occurring in warm waters from the Red Sea to South Africa and east to French Polynesia and the Pitcairn group.

It makes use of a variety of habitats but prefers the exposed fronts of reefs, at depths of up to 40 m. Hunting, they lie on the bottom and surge forward, preferring juvenile surgeon fish and crustaceans.

This grouper may follow and cooperate with another predator species, such as an octopus or eel or camouflage themselves in a school of surgeon fish. Multiple individuals may cooperate to harass an eel to get it to flush prey for them.

The species typically sit on a coral head, retreating when startled. Red Sea males defend harems of 2–6 females in territories ranging up to .5 acres (0.20 ha).

The male visits each female daily, raising his dorsal fin to signal his approach. The females emerge from hiding, erecting her own dorsal fin and changing to a lighter color.

grouper spotted culture fish bluespotted argi cephalopholis hawaii
(Source: www.frankbaensch.com)

Territorial disputes may involve “color fights” in which two males positioning themselves at right angles to each other. They then darken their color and repeatedly switch their bars from dark to light.

During courtship, both sexes darken except for a white keyhole-shaped patch at the center of the body. Known in Hawaii as ROI, the state introduced the species in the 1950s to enhance local fisheries.

Hawaii's Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) finds that ROI have become the reefs' dominant predator. Their biomass is now greater than that of all other reef fish predators combined.

Prized as delicious eating in other Pacific regions, in Hawaii's waters ROI may contain the ciguatera toxin, which builds up in humans and causes serious illness. A study published in 2007 found that 18% of ROI sampled from Oahu and Hawaii islands had toxins above levels safe for consumption.

Due to high variability of toxin levels between individuals in the same area, toxicity cannot be predicted based on location. Because of the toxicity issues, ROI does not have a functional fishery, with just an average of $1000 per year in sales.

grouper bluespotted royalty atoll maldives ari south
(Source: dreamstime.com)

Roi's feed primarily on juvenile fish that have recruited the reef. The family of fish that make up the majority of their diet Scarsdale or Parrot fish, are crucial to the coral reef ecosystem by removing algal growth on coral colonies through feeding.

Hawaii has the highest rate of endemic of its nearshore marine fish species at 24.3%. The lack of natural predators to control ROI populations along with their high efficiency is a major threat to the unique fish fauna found in Hawaii.

On Maui, spearfishes participate in “ROI Roundup” tournaments that target these problematic fish, attempting to reduce their numbers and impact. This practice has spread to other islands, where there are similar tournaments that target ROI and other invasive fish species.

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1 www.coastalreview.org - https://www.coastalreview.org/2020/11/whats-on-the-line-north-carolina-grouper/
2 islandfreepress.org - https://islandfreepress.org/fishing-report/whats-on-the-line-grouper-in-north-carolina/
3 www.pointclickfish.com - https://www.pointclickfish.com/fishing/saltwater-fishing/offshore/big-carolina-gag-grouper/