Hyporthodus nitrites is threatened by fishing or by catch release mortality (due to pressure change). Fishing is primarily by hook and line and bottom longlines, though the species is caught incidentally in the deepwater snapper/ grouper commercial fishery.
The IUCN rates it Near Threatened and the American Fisheries Society lists it as Endangered. The warsawgrouper is the only member of the genus Epinephelous that has 10 dorsal spines, the second of which is much longer than the third.
The color is a grayish brown to dark reddish-brown background with numerous small, irregular white blotches on the sides. Warsaw range from North Carolina to the Florida Keys and throughout much of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico to the northern coast of South America.
The species inhabits irregular bottom, notches, valleys, and drop-offs, occurring in the continental shelf break in waters 350 to 650 feet deep. Other species inhabiting this productive deep-water zone are snowy and yellow edge groupers, tile fish, and silk snappers.
Size Limit: Harvest and possession is prohibited in federal waters. Trip Limit: Harvest and possession is prohibited in federal waters.
At least one hooking device is required and must be used as needed to remove hooks embedded in South Atlantic snapper- grouper with minimum damage. Descending Device Requirement: Requirement: A descending device is required to be on board and readily available for use on all vessels fishing for or possessing snapper- grouper species; Definition of a Descending Device: an instrument to which is attached a minimum of a 16 ounce weight and a length of line that will release the fish at the depth from which the fish was caught or a minimum of 60 feet.
Since minimizing surface time is critical to increasing survival, descending devices shall be readily available for use while engaged in fishing. Size Limit: Harvest and possession is prohibited in federal waters.
Bag Limit: Harvest and possession is prohibited in federal waters. At least one hooking device is required and must be used as needed to remove hooks embedded in South Atlantic snapper- grouper with minimum damage.
Descending Device Requirement: Requirement: A descending device is required to be on board and readily available for use on all vessels fishing for or possessing snapper- grouper species; Definition of a Descending Device: an instrument to which is attached a minimum of a 16 ounce weight and a length of line that will release the fish at the depth from which the fish was caught or a minimum of 60 feet. Since minimizing surface time is critical to increasing survival, descending devices shall be readily available for use while engaged in fishing.
The proposal for the two-square-mile underwater hump will be considered by the Snapper- Grouper Committee of the federal South Atlantic Fishery Management Council during meetings next week in Key West. Several sites in the South Atlantic region, from Florida to North Carolina, have been recommended as areas to protect waters considered critical for snapper and grouper species.
Unlike some other restricted areas, the spawning management zones are proposed to allow trolling along the surface for species like tuna and dolphin. Holly Binds, a project director for the Pew Environment Group, issued the following statement today in response to the U.S. Commerce Department's final approval of a plan to reopen fishing for six species in water deeper than 240 feet along the southeast coast, from North Carolina to Florida.
“Although today's decision does not allow direct catch of these imperiled animals, it does permit fishermen to target six other species that live near the dwindling fish in waters deeper than 240 feet. The problem is that speckled hind and Warsaw grouper can be caught accidentally by fishermen targeting other deepwater species and that too often these fish do not survive even if released.
“Despite scientific evidence that these fish need significant help to recover, fishery managers have left them vulnerable to further decline without considering alternative safeguards. Background: Although the catch limit for speckled hind and Warsaw grouper was set at zero, additional measures are needed to end overfishing for these two species.
Conservation groups, including Pew, objected to the change because adequate scientific analysis had not been conducted and no alternative measures to protect these species were implemented. Even with a prohibition on harvest, the Warsaw grouper and speckled hind populations are so depleted that any mortality due to accidental catch will result in overfishing.
This is why these groups asked the U.S. Department of Commerce Secretary, who has the final say in regional fish policies, to allow these protections to remain. The council has started a process to establish protections for some habitat preferred by these struggling populations of speckled hind and Warsaw grouper.
A science committee and a fishermen advisory panel met this spring to identify measures that would most benefit the species' recovery, and an expert work group will convene next week in Cooler, Ga. Overfishing can rapidly unbalance the ratio of males to females in the population and remove too many of the older, larger fish before they have the opportunity to reproduce.
Speckled hind are found from North Carolina to the Florida Keys and also in the Northern and Eastern Gulf of Mexico and Bermuda. David Duval, area supervisor of the Northwest Region, told Woods ‘n Water an investigation was underway after FCC received several calls when photographs of the estimated 7-foot, 450-pound fish were printed in the Apalachicola Times and Panama City News Herald as well as circulated around the internet.
The fish drew a crowd at the dock, as the anglers allowed numerous onlookers to take photos as it was lifted from the boat by a backhoe, before being filleted and vacuum packed to take home to Alabama and Kansas. After a dramatic decline in numbers in the 1970-80’s, Goliath were protected in 1990, requiring they be “immediately returned to the water, free, alive and unharmed” or face a second-degree misdemeanor, punishable by up to 60 days in jail and a $500 fine.
However, because the meat was taken home to Alabama and Kansas, the men could also be prosecuted under the “Lacey Act,” a federal law that makes it a felony to transport illegally harvested fish across state lines. Groupers are a species of fish that belong to the Epinephrine subfamily of the family Serranidae.
If you are casting in the shallows, use jerk bait and retrieve it erratically to lure the fish out in the open. You will need heavy tackle, especially if there are a lot of rocks under the water where you are fishing and a braided line that can withstand the powerful pull of a caught grouper.
If you are using spinning tackle, make sure that the reel is heavy enough to withstand an 80 to 100-pound test mainline and a low gear ratio to give you more control. This tackle will come in handy when the panicking grouper fish tries to swim under a ledge to break the line.
For live bait, use pinkish, grunts, blue runner, sardines, and mullet. The grouper is a lean and moist fish that has a mild flavor, and the flesh is firm and flaky.
The Atlantic Goliath grouper or Tamara (Epimetheus Tamara), also known as the Jewish, is a large saltwater fish of the grouper family found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths from 5 to 50 m (16 to 164 ft). Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast.
On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts. In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal.
Young Atlantic Goliath groupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers. They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb).
The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961. Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic Goliath grouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen.
It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature. They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations.
Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline. The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico.
The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.
Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. In May 2015, the Atlantic Goliath grouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time.
Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara. In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter.
It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe. In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive.
^ Lovato, Cleo nice Maria Cardozo; Soars, Bruno Clears; Begot, Tiago Octavio Buffalo; Montage, Luciano Coach de Assis (January 2016). “Tidal pools as habitat for juveniles of the Goliath grouper Epimetheus Tamara (Lichtenstein 1822) in the Amazonian coastal zone, Brazil”.
Risky, Delaney C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H. (2015). “ Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.