This particular specimen was black with small white spots and had a bluish tinted belly. The Hawaiian grouper has a body which has a standard length that is 2.3 to 2.7 times its depth.
It has an angular properly which has 3-4 enlarged serrations at its angle, with the lowest pointing downwards. The upper margin of the gill cover is convex.
The dorsal fin contains 11 spines and 14-15 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 9 soft rays. The membranes between the dorsal fin spines are deeply notched.
The adults are dark brown in overall color and are marked with 8 vertical series of faint white spots which are obscured by many extra pale spots and blotches which vary in size. The fins of adults are largely plain and have a similar color to the body apart from a few pale spots along the base part of the dorsal fin.
The Hawaiian grouper is a reversal species which is found on coral and rocky reefs at depths between 20 and 380 meters (66 and 1,247 ft). The spawning season runs from February to June, peaking in March.
The Hawaiian grouper is valued for having clear white flesh which has a delicate flavor. It is regarded as a member of the “Deep 7” group of fish species which live in deep water, near the bottom, and are a valuable resource for fisheries in Hawaii, these species accounting for 50% of the total commercial catch in the State.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF).
The Atlantic Goliath grouper or Tamara (Epimetheus Tamara), also known as the Jewish, is a large saltwater fish of the grouper family found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths from 5 to 50 m (16 to 164 ft). Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast.
On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts. In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal.
Young Atlantic goliathgroupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers. They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb).
The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961. Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic Goliath grouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen.
It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature. They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations.
Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline. The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico.
The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.
Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. In May 2015, the Atlantic Goliath grouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time.
Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara. In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter.
It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe. In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive.
^ Lovato, Cleo nice Maria Cardozo; Soars, Bruno Clears; Begot, Tiago Octavio Buffalo; Montage, Luciano Coach de Assis (January 2016). “Tidal pools as habitat for juveniles of the Goliath grouper Epimetheus Tamara (Lichtenstein 1822) in the Amazonian coastal zone, Brazil”.
Risky, Delaney C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H. (2015). “ Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.
A new genetic study by the University of Hawaii, the Wildlife Conservation Society, and others has found that there are two species of Goliath grouper instead of one. No, it was just a case of mistaken identity, as explained in a recent genetic study in the journal Endangered Species Research.
“For more than a century, ichthyologists have thought that Pacific and Atlantic Goliath grouper were the same species, and the argument was settled before the widespread use of genetic techniques. The genetic data were the key to our finding: two species, one on each side of the isthmus.,” said Dr. Matthew Craig of the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, lead author of the study.
Because the two populations of grouper are identical in body form and markings, they were both considered part of the same species: Epimetheus Tamara. While testing the hypothesis that Pacific and West Atlantic grouper were the same species, the research team found significant differences in the DNA from both populations.
Atlantic Goliath grouper (Epimetheus Tamara)No, they’re not named after the biblical giant slain by David, but for their robust size. / 220 kg in weight, and measure up to 7 ft. / 2.1 m in length, easily making them the largest tropical reef dwelling money fish in the world.
Turns out that both species did share the same ancestry, going back roughly three-and-a-half million years ago, when the Caribbean was open to the Pacific. Eastern Pacific Goliath grouper (Epimetheus quinquefasciatus)Before DNA testing became the fashionable answer for everything, ichthyologists had to rely on a fish’s anatomical physiology (appearance) for classification.
Again, the physical build is close to identical, but the brown to tan and gray mottled coloration patterns are significantly different.