The properly is subangular with the serrations at its angle being slightly enlarged and the upper edge of the gill cover is straight. The They are dark reddish brown on the upper part of the head and body, shading to paler pink on the underparts, they are marked with lighter spots and blotches across their body and there are darker margins to the fins.
This species has a maximum published total length of 125 centimeters (49 in), although they a more commonly found at lengths around 50 centimeters (20 in), and a maximum published weight of 23 kilograms (51 lb). The redgrouper's typical range is coastal areas in the western Atlantic, stretching from southern Brazil to North Carolina in the US and including the Gulf of Mexico and Bermuda.
Spawning occurs offshore between January and June, peaking in May. While primarily eating benthic invertebrates, the red grouper is an opportunistic feeder in the reef community.
The diet commonly includes mantid and portend crabs, juvenile spiny lobster, and snapping shrimp, with the occasional fish. The red grouper is of moderate size, about 125 cm and weighs 23 kg or more.
When aggravated (they are highly territorial) or involved in spawning activities, these fish can very rapidly change coloration patterns, with the head or other parts of the body turning completely white, and the white spots appearing more intense. Red grouper (Epimetheus Mario) on an excavated site on Pulley Ridges on the West Florida Shelf Red grouper actively excavate pits in the seafloor.
They start digging in the sediment from the time they settle out of the plankton and continue throughout their lifetime. They use their caudal fin and their mouths to remove debris and sediment from rocks, creating exposed surfaces on which sessile organisms actively settle (e.g., sponges, soft corals, algae).
The exposure of structure also attracts a myriad of other species, including mobile invertebrates and a remarkable diversity of other fishes, from bodies and butterfly fish to grunts and snapper. The lionfish Steroid Holsteins started invading red grouper habitat by 2008, from Florida Bay to the Florida Keys and offshore to Pulley Ridge, a despotic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf west of the Dry Tortugas.
Known for being extremely capable predators on small reef fish, scientists are very interested in determining the extent to which their invasion changes the functional dynamics of associated communities. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epimetheus Mario.
Scientific name translates to “venomous,” alluding to the fact that this fish, perhaps more frequently than other groupers, is associated with ciguatera poisoning. Although some populations are below target levels, U.S. wild-caught red grouper is still a smart seafood choice because it is sustainably managed and responsibly harvested under U.S. regulations.
Large sharks and carnivorous marine mammals prey on adult red grouper. Red grouper are found in the western Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts through the Gulf of Mexico and south to Brazil.
Both the commercial and recreational fisheries have size limits to reduce harvest of immature red grouper. The commercial and recreational fishing seasons are closed from January through April to protect red grouper during their peak spawning period.
To reduce by catch, there are restrictions on the type of gear fishermen may use and where they can fish. Year-round and/or seasonal area closures for commercial and recreational sectors to protect spawning groupers.
Scientific Livestock Status RecreationalCommercialSeasonClosed February 1 through March 31 beyond 20 fathoms (120 ft or 36.6 m), Open in January and April 1 through December 31. Season Red grouper is managed under an individual fishing quota (If) program. Anyone commercially fishes for red grouper must possess allocation and follow established protocols.
Additionally, an eastern Gulf reef fish bottom longline endorsement required to use bottom longline for Gulf reef fish in the federal waters east of 85°30 longitude. Gear Non-stainless steel circle hooks are required when fishing with natural baits.
(d) Seasonal closure of the recreational sector for shallow-water grouper (SG). The recreational sector for SG, in or from the Gulf EEA, is closed each year from February 1 through March 31, in the portion of the Gulf EEA seaward of thumb lines connecting, in order, the points in the following table.
During the closure, the bag and possession limit for SG in or from the Gulf EEA seaward of the following thumb lines is zero. Red grouper is present in the Western Atlantic from the Carolina's south to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and Bermuda; however, it is most abundant in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.
In general, red grouper is a dark brown color with a reddish hue on its back and sides, fading to a pale pink underneath. The anal, dorsal and tail fins have dark margins.
The spawning season occurs anywhere from January to early June depending on the area. Obama, S., B. Eris man, W. Haman, C. Biggs, N. Farmer, S. Lowerre-Barbieri, M. Karnataka, and J. Brenner.
Cooperative monitoring program for spawning aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico: data portal. Sedan 61 Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper Final Stock Assessment Report, 2019 Farmer, N.A., Malinowski, R.P., McGovern, M.F.
(2016), Stock Complexes for Fisheries Management in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 8: 177-201. Doi: 10.1080/19425120.2015.1024359 Like, E. and R. Myers, 1994.
Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish. The majority of media and political attention is focused on red snapper, but there are several other reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico that are of commercial and recreational importance.
Thanks to successful management under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, red snapper populations are rebounding and their range is expanding. On a regional level, any time the commercial sector does not land its quota, political pressures begin to ramp up from radical recreational fishing lobbying groups who push for reallocating commercial fishing quota and gifting it to recreational fishermen.
Why would these radical groups push for more lax management and reallocation when even recreational fishermen in the Gulf could only catch 35% of their quota in 2017? Solving the problem of a declining of red grouper population is not going to be an easy task, but I have confidence that our collaboration between industry, scientists, and managers, together with the best-available science mandated by Magnuson-Stevens, can successfully recover the red grouper fishery.
Paul Lough ridge is a commercial fisherman and owner of four boats out of Crystal River, Florida. He’s been fishing for over 25 years, starting with grouper and snapper, then expanding into stone crab.
Epimetheus flavocaeruleus is a middle-sized fish, it can grow up to a maximum length of 90 cm but average size is usually around 45 cm. It has a deep and compressed body, the standard length being 2.3 to 2.7 times its depth.
The properly is subangular with enlarged serrations at its angle. The upper edge of the gill cover is straight or slightly convex.
The dorsal fin contains 9 spines and 16-17 soft rays while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8 soft rays, there are no incisions in the membranes between the dorsal fin spines. The head and body are dark bluish violet to dark grayish blue, there are sometimes pale blue flecks while the fins and jaws are bright yellow > In some fish the corners of caudal fin, the margin of the portrayed part of the dorsal and the anal fins as well as the tips of pelvic fins are blackish.
The yellow color fades as the fish grows and the larger adults are normally dark grayish, dark blue, purple, reddish brown, or nearly black. Epimetheus flavocaeruleus is solitary and sedentary, defending a well bounded territory.
The juveniles are found in shallow reefs whereas the adults occur on deeper reefs to 150 meters (490 ft) This predatory species feeds on fishes, crabs, shrimps, spiny lobsters, squids, and small octopuses. Epimetheus flavocaeruleus is landed on Réunion as part of the mixed grouper fishery there, in the Maldives it is captured for export to the Hong Kong live reef fish market.
RDA International, Inc. Porterville (California, USA). Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine).
An annotated and illustrated catalog of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date (PDF). Reef fishes of the East Indies.
Beset by lengthy season closures for gag and scamp groupers, red snappers, amber jacks and even trigger fish, as well as tight bag limits and restrictive size limits, many offshore fishermen began to wonder if owning a boat was worth it. Some turned to tuna fishing; most found there was a limit to how many red created Volkswagen's they wanted to reel in and eat a year.
Early deep-droppers found a wide array of new species available to them, things like queen and silk snappers, long tail bass, golden tile fish, barrel fish, speckled hinds and snowy groupers. With the possible exception of golden tile fish, which really prefer deeper waters, the yellow edge is the most common fish caught by deep-droppers.
And just as good, maybe better yet, they are almost universally acclaimed to be the best tasting member of the entire grouper clan. Their range starts off of the Carolina son the East Coast, wraps around Florida through the entire Gulf of Mexico, rings every island in the Caribbean and goes down the South American Coast to southern Brazil.
They are an oddity within the grouper family, in which most species prefer reefs, shipwrecks, rock piles and other high-profile bottom structure for their homes. Most preferred seem to be hard bottoms liberally encrusted with coral-like growths on them, called “live bottom.” But the fish is also found on clay, sand and even mud bottoms in their preferred depth zone.
Big yellow edges dominate smaller specimens and will hog the available food supply. Their adult body color is a nondescript gray-brown, but their dorsal (back), pectoral (side), anal (belly) fins and sometimes their tail fins are edged in brilliant yellow.
Small yellow fin groupers’ bodies are often marked with orderly, widely spaced rows of white spots. White body spots are a signature marking on their close deep-water relative, the snowy grouper.
They are most commonly colored gray or pinkish, and heavily marked with mottling or blotches. In any case, the change apparently happens very quickly, as biologists seldom examine a fish in transition from female to male.
Females begin turning into males at about 23 inches long and 13 years of age. Spawning takes place from January through October, peaking in May to September.
Second, since they are protogynous hermaphrodites and males are found only in the larger (and more aggressive and easy to catch) size classes, heavy fishing pressure on larger fish may take enough males to lower spawning success in this species.