The properly is subangular with the serrations at its angle being slightly enlarged and the upper edge of the gill cover is straight. The They are dark reddish brown on the upper part of the head and body, shading to paler pink on the underparts, they are marked with lighter spots and blotches across their body and there are darker margins to the fins.
This species has a maximum published total length of 125 centimeters (49 in), although they a more commonly found at lengths around 50 centimeters (20 in), and a maximum published weight of 23 kilograms (51 lb). The redgrouper's typical range is coastal areas in the western Atlantic, stretching from southern Brazil to North Carolina in the US and including the Gulf of Mexico and Bermuda.
Spawning occurs offshore between January and June, peaking in May. While primarily eating benthic invertebrates, the red grouper is an opportunistic feeder in the reef community.
The diet commonly includes mantid and portend crabs, juvenile spiny lobster, and snapping shrimp, with the occasional fish. The red grouper is of moderate size, about 125 cm and weighs 23 kg or more.
When aggravated (they are highly territorial) or involved in spawning activities, these fish can very rapidly change coloration patterns, with the head or other parts of the body turning completely white, and the white spots appearing more intense. Red grouper (Epimetheus Mario) on an excavated site on Pulley Ridges on the West Florida Shelf Red grouper actively excavate pits in the seafloor.
They start digging in the sediment from the time they settle out of the plankton and continue throughout their lifetime. They use their caudal fin and their mouths to remove debris and sediment from rocks, creating exposed surfaces on which sessile organisms actively settle (e.g., sponges, soft corals, algae).
The exposure of structure also attracts a myriad of other species, including mobile invertebrates and a remarkable diversity of other fishes, from bodies and butterfly fish to grunts and snapper. The lionfish Steroid Holsteins started invading red grouper habitat by 2008, from Florida Bay to the Florida Keys and offshore to Pulley Ridge, a despotic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf west of the Dry Tortugas.
Known for being extremely capable predators on small reef fish, scientists are very interested in determining the extent to which their invasion changes the functional dynamics of associated communities. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epimetheus Mario.
“Helming parasites of Epimetheus Mario (Pisces: Serranidae) of the Yucatán Peninsula, southeastern Mexico” (PDF). The Queensland grouper is the world’s largest reef-dwelling bony fish.
Adults have mottled brown to dark gray stocky bodies. They are often found either hovering in mid water or resting motionless on the substrate.
This specie sound in the Indo-Pacific and is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Queensland's groupers live in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan, west to the Red Sea, and south to Alga Bay, South Africa.
This large fish is commonly found in shallow waters in or around coral reefs. This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips.
Dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size front to back. Queensland's groupers feed on fishes, including avoids and small sharks, spiny lobsters, crustaceans and juvenile sea turtles.
The Queensland grouper is a solitary, slow-moving fish usually found resting motionless on the substrate or hovering mid water. This species is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN due to overfishing.
Queensland's groupers live in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan, west to the Red Sea, and south to Alga Bay, South Africa. This large fish is commonly found in shallow waters in or around coral reefs.
This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips. Dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size front to back.
Queensland's groupers feed on fishes, including avoids and small sharks, spiny lobsters, crustaceans and juvenile sea turtles. The Queensland grouper is a solitary, slow-moving fish usually found resting motionless on the substrate or hovering mid water.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Performed Family: Serranidae Subfamily: Epinephrine Genus: Epimetheus Species: Binomial name Epimetheus lanceolatus Synonyms Holocentrus lanceolatus Bloch, 1790 Promiscuous lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) Serra nus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) Serra nus geographic us Valentines, 1828 Serra nus abdominal is Peters, 1855 Barracks gigs Gunther, 1869 Rigorous Goliath DE Vi's, 1882 Serra nus phaeostigmaeus Fowler, 1907 Stereolepoides Thompson Fowler, 1923 The giant grouper has a robust body which has a standard length equivalent to 2.4 to 3.4 times its depth.
The dorsal profile of the head and the intraorbital area are convex, The properly has a rounded corner and a finely serrated margin. The gill cover has a convex upper margin.
There are 11 spines and 14-16 soft rays in the dorsal fin while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8 soft rays. The adults are greyish-brown in color overlain with a mottled pattern and with darker fins.
The giant grouper can grow to huge size with the maximum recorded standard length being 270 centimeters (110 in), although they are more common around 180 centimeters (71 in). And a maximum published weight of 400 kilograms (880 lb).
The giant grouper is a species of shallow water and can be found at depths of 1 to 100 meters (3.3 to 328.1 ft). Large specimens have been caught from shore and in harbors.
They are found in caves and in wrecks while the secretive juveniles occur in reefs and are infrequently observed. The adults are mainly solitary and hold territories on the outer reef and in lagoons.
They have also been caught in turbid water over silt or mud sea beds by prawn fishermen. The giant grouper is an opportunistic ambush predator which feeds on a variety of fishes, as well as small sharks, juvenile sea turtles, crustaceans and mollusks which are all swallowed whole.
Fish which inhabit coral reefs and rocky areas favor spiny lobsters as prey and 177 centimeters (70 in) specimen taken of Maui in Hawaii had a stomach contents of two spiny lobsters and a number of crabs. Fish living in estuaries environments in South Africa were found to be feeding almost exclusively on the crab Scylla errata.
They are, however, curious and frequently approach divers closely. They are not generally considered dangerous to humans but divers are advised to treat large specimens with caution and not to hand feed them.
They are aggregate broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male. Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring.
Giant groupers are diabetic protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that although some males develop from reproductively functional females other males start to produce sperm without ever having gone through a phase as a reproductive female. The giant grouper is a highly valued food fish and is taken by both commercial and recreational fisheries.
As well as the consumption of its flesh its skin, gall bladder and stomach are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is valued in Hong Kong as a live fish for the live reef food fish trade, especially smaller specimens.
This species is cultured in agriculture and this practice is widespread but there is a restricted supply of juveniles, although hatcheries in Taiwan have produced captive bred juveniles, exporting some for to be grown on in other parts of South-East Asia. Many of the fish produced in aquaculture are hybrids between this species and E. fuscoguttatus.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). “A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus)”.
^ Peter Palma; Akihito Nakamura; Garden XYZ Libunaoa; et al. (2019). “Reproductive development of the threatened giant grouper Epimetheus lanceolatus “.
^ Scholar, W. N.; Cricket, R. & van der Loan, R. Given its impressive reputation, it’s no surprise that this mighty fish is the aquatic emblem of Queensland, Australia.
Scientists know that Queensland Gropers/Giant Groupers grow to 2.7 m (close to 9’) in size and can easily weigh over 400 kg (880 lbs). They even eat other large fish and small Sharks, but they’re favorite food is Crayfish.
You can find this species throughout the Indo-Pacific region (excluding the Persian Gulf), from South Africa to the Hawaiian Islands. Anglers and scientists have recorded Queensland Groper in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, and China.
The red snapper is named for the way it suddenly and forcibly opens and shuts its jaws when dying. But they will settle for crabs, squid, worms, mollusks, and algae.
They usually remain near the coast during the summer and move offshore as fall arrives. Unfortunately, this creature is one of about 300 species that can cause a painful type of food poisoning, called ciguatera.
Scientists think ciguatera is caused when the red snapper eats a type of poisonous blue-green algae. Experts still don’t know when or where a rare outbreak of ciguatera will strike.
Grouper, any of the large family of fish also commonly known as sea bass. Although the approximately 400 species of groupers vary greatly, most have several features in common.
The pelvic fins, which have a spine and five soft rays, are well forward on the belly. Adult groupers vary from a few inches in length and several ounces in weight to gigantic proportions.
The largest species is probably the Queensland grouper (Promiscuous lanceolatus) of Australia; the biggest on record was 12 feet (3.5 meters) long and weighed 1,000 pounds (454 kg). Larger groupers tend to be drab; smaller ones are often brightly colored and patterned.
The majority of media and political attention is focused on red snapper, but there are several other reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico that are of commercial and recreational importance. Fishermen are putting our heads together to independently address this issue instead of waiting for politics and management to catch up.
Are we catching less red grouper because the red snapper population has expanded as it recovers? Thanks to successful management under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, red snapper populations are rebounding and their range is expanding.
Solving the problem of a declining of red grouper population is not going to be an easy task, but I have confidence that our collaboration between industry, scientists, and managers, together with the best-available science mandated by Magnuson-Stevens, can successfully recover the red grouper fishery. Paul Lough ridge is a commercial fisherman and owner of four boats out of Crystal River, Florida.
He’s been fishing for over 25 years, starting with grouper and snapper, then expanding into stone crab. Over the intervening years, he would occasionally be sent pictures of the same type of grouper, one lacking distinctive features that struck him as a potential new species, but had never found a specimen to examine.
This time, however, Johnson was able to locate the market where the fish were on sale, in a suburb north of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia, and ended up buying all five specimens he found there. Comparing the results of those tests with related specimens found in the museum’s collections gave the researchers enough evidence to prove that the fish that very nearly became someone’s next meal actually belong to a heretofore unrecognized species.
The new species was given the scientific name Epimetheus fuscomarginatus and formally described to science in a study published in the journal Zoo taxa last month. Johnson says E. fuscomarginatus can be found off the central section of the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland at depths of about 220 meters or more than 720 feet.
“The plain-looking fish, with no real distinctive markings, is typical of most other grouper species and probably explains why it has remained unnoticed and without a name for such a long time.” A Queensland Groper, Epimetheus lanceolatus, at Main Beach South Stradbroke Island, Queensland, August 2017.
Summary:Adults are a mottled greyish-brown with yellowish or darker fins. Small juveniles are yellow with irregular broad dark bars on the body, and irregular dark spots on the fins.
This huge robust grouper is the largest bony reef-dwelling fish in the world. Prior to its listing as a protected species in the early 1980s, the Queensland Groper was much sought after by line and spearfishes in New South Wales.
2020, Epimetheus lanceolatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 02 Jan 2021, http://22.214.171.124/home/species/4672 Rottenest Island through north-western Australia, including Rowley Shoals and Scott Reef, to Sydney, New South Wales including reefs in the Coral Sea; also Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean, and the Lord Howe Island Province in the Tasman Sea.
The species has also been reported from Young husband Peninsula, South Australia. This solitary species inhabits shallow inshore waters, including rocky areas, caves and wrecks, harbors, estuaries, lagoons and seaward reefs.
Large individuals often hover in mid-water, or lie motionless on the bottom. Dorsal fin XI,14-16; Anal fin III, 8; Gill makers (first arch) 8-10 + 14-17; Lateral-line scales 54-62, anterior scales with branched tubules (except small juveniles).
Body robust, body depth 2.3-3.4 in SL (specimens 12-179 cm SL); body width 1.5-1.75 in body depth; head length 2.2-2.7 in SL; eye diameter 5.8-14 in HL; interorbital width 3.3 (at 177 cm SL) to 6.2 (at 12 cm SL) in HL; properly finely serrate, the corner rounded; upper edge of pendulum convex. Mid lateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of teeth (at 20-25 cm SL) increasing to 15-16 rows in specimen of 177 cm SL; canine teeth at front of jaws small or absent.
Dorsal fin third to eleventh spines subequal, shorter than the longest soft rays; short pelvic fins, 23.0-2.7 in head length; caudal fin rounded. Small juveniles (less than 15 cm SL) are yellow, with 3 irregular black areas, the first from the spinors dorsal fin to the belly and chest, and extending onto the head; the second from the soft dorsal-fin base to the anal fin; the third at the caudal-fin base. Subadults (25-60 cm SL) with irregular white or yellow spots on the black areas, and black spots on the fins. Adults (90-165 cm SL) dark brown with faint mottling, and numerous small black spots on the fins. Large adults 180-250 cm SL) are greyish-brown to dark brown with darker fins.
Feeds on lobsters, crabs, fishes including small sharks and rays, and juvenile sea turtles. Although common in the live fish trade in Asia, the species is considered to be under threat from fishing pressure in most parts of its range.
Fortunately, fish reared in aquaculture operations are increasingly being sold in the live fish trade. Listed as a Protected Species under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 in New South Wales, where it is at the southern limit of its distribution in Australia.
The species is also partly or fully protected in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland. It was listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN in 2018.
There have been unconfirmed reports of fatal attacks on humans, and the flesh of large individuals may contain ciguatera. Type locality: Stingier Alma 2010.
Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 6798, Australia. Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls.
Naturgeschichte her ausländischen Fischer. Coat, J.H., van Heerlen, L., Robbins, W.D., Hobbs, J.P. & Ailing, A.M. 2006.
A report on the ecological surveys undertaken at Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs, February 2006. Report by James Cook University to the Department of the Environment and Heritage.
New and rare tropical and subtropical fishes from northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33: 571-586.
Serra nus magnifies Maclean 1882, a junior synonym of Epimetheus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) (Teleostean: Serranidae). A Survey of Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, South Pacific.
An annotated and illustrated catalog of grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyre tail species known to date. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific.
FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Hobbs, J-P.A., Newman, S.J., Mitsopoulos, G.E.A., Travels, M.J., Skipper, C.L., Gilligan, J.J., Allen, G.R., Coat, H.J.
Hobbs, J-P.A., Newman, S. J., Mitsopoulos, G.E.A., Travels, M.J., Skipper, C.L., Gilligan, J.J., Allen, G.R., Coat, H.J. Fishes of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands: new records, community composition and biogeographic significance.
Perth : Aqua Research and Monitoring Services. Biodiversity of shallow reef fish assemblages in Western Australia using a rapid censusing technique.
Fishes of the Morton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Morton Bay.
The Marine Flora and Fauna of Darwin Harbor, Northern Territory, Australia. Proceedings of the Sixth International Marine Biology Workshop.
Darwin : Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory 466 pp. An annotated checklist of the fishes of the Northern Territory, Australia.
Identification Guide to Fishes in the Live Seafood Trade of the Asia-Pacific Region. WWF Hong Kong and Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department.
An inconvenient monopoly: an update on the taxonomy of the groupers (Epinephelidae). Codon South, Victoria : Australian Fishing Network 256 pp.
Proceedings of the Linear Society of New South Wales 1 5(1): 93-95 (described as Rigorous terraereginae) Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific.
Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Performed: Serranidae: Epinephrine), with descriptions of five new species.
Wellington : Te Father Press Vol. Annotated checklist of the coral reef fishes in the Capricorn-Bunker group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Grouper is a salt-water fish, found on the menu in restaurants and within stores throughout the United States.
There are three varieties available that vary in flavor and price: red grouper, true black grouper, and gag. For a mild-tasting fish, it has very high levels of oil, which offers a pleasant buttery mouthfeel.
CharacteristicDescriptionTasteMild tasting with a faintly sweet undertoneTextureFirm, large flakesFishinessLow levelsOilinessHigh levelsColorWhite, once cooked The smaller size impacts the taste of the red grouper as it has a milder, sweeter flavor.
The black grouper has a firmer texture and yields more edible fish content than the red variety. If you don’t have a reliable source for fresh grouper, consider buying the frozen product.
Its high levels of oil help it maintain a lovely moist texture even if it’s a little over-cooked. It’s also tasty eaten on its own, on skewers, with a zesty lemon marinade, a creamy tartare sauce, or a combination of butter, garlic, and lime juice.
The debate for whether grouper is best eaten with batter, crumbed, floured, or with nothing added will always rage on. Blackening is a quick and straightforward method that produces moist fish encased in a flavor-packed coating.
Although blackening is suited to outdoor grilling, you can also cook the fish in the oven or fry it in a pan. Preheat a large skillet on the grill or stove top on high heat for at least 10 minutes.
Rinse the fish fillets in cold water, then pat dry with paper towels. Once all the ingredients are evenly distributed, transfer the mixture to a platter or large plate.
As groupers are a reef-dwelling fish, they have the potential to be contaminated by toxins, which can lead to Ciguatera poisoning. Your best option to avoid getting sick is to check with the seller if the fish comes from a hotspot for Ciguatera.
Some problem areas include the Caribbean Sea, Hawaii, and coastal Central America. A gulf grouper is a unique tasting, moist fish that is endemic to Mexico.
It has a subtle, sweet flavor with less fishy taste than black grouper or gag. It is prized for its moist meat that easily flakes into big chunks once cooked.
Grouper is considered to be a white fish, along with haddock, catfish, tilapia, and snapper. It’s relatively high oil content makes it a simple fish to avoid overcooking.
It is a blank canvas that allows the creative cook to pair exciting ingredients with the fish. If you enjoy fish that isn’t too full of flavor then you might also like to check out our sea bass guide.