The dorsal profile of the head and the intraorbital area are convex, The properly has a rounded corner and a finely serrated margin. The gill cover has a convex upper margin.
There are 11 spines and 14-16 soft rays in the dorsal fin while the anal fin has 3 spines and 8 soft rays. The adults are greyish-brown in color overlain with a mottled pattern and with darker fins.
The giant grouper can grow to huge size with the maximum recorded standard length being 270 centimeters (110 in), although they are more common around 180 centimeters (71 in). And a maximum published weight of 400 kilograms (880 lb).
The giant grouper is a species of shallow water and can be found at depths of 1 to 100 meters (3.3 to 328.1 ft). Large specimens have been caught from shore and in harbors.
They are found in caves and in wrecks while the secretive juveniles occur in reefs and are infrequently observed. The adults are mainly solitary and hold territories on the outer reef and in lagoons.
They have also been caught in turbid water over silt or mud sea beds by prawn fishermen. The giant grouper is an opportunistic ambush predator which feeds on a variety of fishes, as well as small sharks, juvenile sea turtles, crustaceans and mollusks which are all swallowed whole.
Fish which inhabit coral reefs and rocky areas favor spiny lobsters as prey and 177 centimeters (70 in) specimen taken of Maui in Hawaii had a stomach contents of two spiny lobsters and a number of crabs. Fish living in estuaries environments in South Africa were found to be feeding almost exclusively on the crab Scylla errata.
They are, however, curious and frequently approach divers closely. They are not generally considered dangerous to humans but divers are advised to treat large specimens with caution and not to hand feed them.
They are aggregate broadcast spawners, usually with several females per male. Studies in captive populations suggest that the dominant male and female begin the spawning event as nearly the only spawners for the first day or two, but other members of the aggregation fertilize more eggs as the event progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring.
Giant groupers are diabetic protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that although some males develop from reproductively functional females other males start to produce sperm without ever having gone through a phase as a reproductive female. The giant grouper is a highly valued food fish and is taken by both commercial and recreational fisheries.
As well as the consumption of its flesh its skin, gall bladder and stomach are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is valued in Hong Kong as a live fish for the live reef food fish trade, especially smaller specimens.
This species is cultured in agriculture and this practice is widespread but there is a restricted supply of juveniles, although hatcheries in Taiwan have produced captive bred juveniles, exporting some for to be grown on in other parts of South-East Asia. Many of the fish produced in aquaculture are hybrids between this species and E. fuscoguttatus.
Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephrine). “A study into parental assignment of the communal spawning protogynous hermaphrodite, giant grouper (Epimetheus lanceolatus)”.
^ Peter Palma; Akihito Nakamura; Garden XYZ Libunaoa; et al. (2019). “Reproductive development of the threatened giant grouper Epimetheus lanceolatus “.
^ Scholar, W. N.; Cricket, R. & van der Loan, R. A groper is a type of fish, different varieties of which may be found around the Australian coastline.
The first is a large purplish fish for food from warm and tropical seas. They eat alga, star fish, and baby seahorses, as they can get bigger with the biggest they can get is 2 meters.
Color: blue, red Aggressiveness: Highly Aggressive Diet: Carnivore Max Size: 13" Minimum Tank Size: 250 gal Relative Care: Moderate Photo Courtesy of Live Aquarian The Blue Line Grouper prefers a diet of meaty foods such as krill, shrimp, and other small fish.
The two white stripes on the caudal fin (tail) appear to form a “V.” Its red body reflects sheets of gray and green in different lighting. The “V-Tail” portion of its common name comes from the two distinct nearly-iridescent stripes on its tail fin.
With the potential to grow to nearly a foot in length, the Red V-Tail Grouper should be kept only in larger aquariums. It welcomes a diet of smaller live fish upon which it can prey with a sudden, unexpected burst of speed and frozen krill and other meaty prepared foods.
A 100 gallon or larger aquarium is required due to its size and feeding habits. V-tail Grouper is an extremely aggressive fish and may eat its tank mates as well as crustaceans.
The V-tail Grouper are ambush predators, feeding mostly on crustaceans and small fish. In captivity, they prefer live feeders, although they may eventually eat frozen foods and pellet or flake.
The V-tail Grouper tend to be fine with other fish as long as they can't eat them. They grow quite large so be sure your aquarium provides adequate hiding and swimming areas.
Gravity of 1.020 to 1.025, temperature between 72 and 78 degree Fahrenheit and pH value between 8.1 and 8.4 is suitable for keeping them in aquarium. It is an extremely aggressive fish and may eat tank mates as well as crustaceans that are small enough to consume.
The Pollen Grouper prefers a diet of meaty foods such as krill, shrimp, and other small fish. Top left: Poll-takers attached to the bronchial arch, showing the projecting rows of hooks (×50) Top right: Hooks attached to the poll-taker (×180) Bottom: Poll-takers in cross-section, showing angle at which hooks project from their point of attachment (water flow is downwards)The structure and spacing of gill makers in fish determines the size of food particles trapped, and correlates with feeding behavior.
Because gill Baker characters often vary between closely related taxa, they are commonly used in the classification and identification of fish species. Much of the variation in gill Baker morphology is thought to be due to adaptation to optimize the consumption of different diets.
Similarly, the mechanism of digestion and absorption process is quite different in fishes and shellfishes. The basic function of digestive system is to dissolve foods by rendering them soluble so that they can be absorbed and utilized in the metabolic process.
The system may also function to remove dangerous toxic properties of certain food substances. Fish generally change their feeding habits depending upon availability of food.
So according to their feeding fishes are classified into different categories' viz., predators, grazers, strainers, suckers and parasites. • The basic function of digestive system is to dissolve foods by rendering them soluble so that they can be absorbed and utilized in the metabolic process.
Pancreatic tissue (exocrine and endocrine), Liver, Gall bladder, 5. FISH DIGESTION: ANATOMY Two major groups Gastric: Cypriots (carps) Gastric: cold-water salmon ids, warm-water catfish, tilapia, eels, grouper Relative gut length (RTL): gut:body length • High RTL = species consuming detritus, algae (high proportion of indigestible matter) 7.
RTL Species Feeding RTL Carp Algae, detritus 15.5 Cameroon Log sucker Algae, inverts 4.5 Barbs Sharpe Plants 2.8-3.1 Chelethiops elongates Zooplankton 0.7 Rainbow Trout Carnivorous 0.9 From DE Silva and Anderson, 1995; page 105 8. Gastrointestinal TRACT • Esophagus • Stomach Large in carnivores, small in Herbivores/ omnivores • Pyloric ceca • Intestine Long in herbivores- omnivores • Anus Separate from urogenital pore 13.
Digestive Anatomy: pancreas and liver Pancreas • Primary source of digestive enzyme • Around the pyloric ceca (or in that same area in fish lacking them) is pancreatic tissue. Function: Exocrine secretion of digestive enzymes (pro teases, lipases, and carbohydrates into the intestine.
• Bile has a digestive function in that it emulsifies lipids, greatly increasing their absorption in the intestine. • The liver is key in the anabolism and catabolism of amino acids and is also the site of storage of food energy in the form of glycogen 15.
SUMMARY OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES Site/Type Fluid/enzyme Function/notes Stomach HCl Reduces gut pH, pepsinogen Gastric secretions Hydrogen, pepsinogen, HCl Amylase Lipase Esterase Chinese Proteolytic Com’s Lipids Esters Chitin Pancreas HCO3 Pro teases Amylase Lipase Chinese Neutralizes HCl Cleave peptide linkages Com’s Lipids Chitin Liver/bile salts, cholesterol Increase pH, emulsify lipids Intestine Aminopeptidases Lecithin Split nucleoside Phospholipids to glycerol + fatty acids 18. • Pepsin has pH optimum and lyses protein into small peptides for easier absorption • Minerals are solubilized; however, no lipid or Com is modified • Mixture of gastric juices, digest, mucous is known as chyme 19.
Fat Digestion • The main enzyme which acts on this lipid is lipase. • The digested food material is thrown out as excreta or fecal matter.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the major form of energy used for cellular metabolism. PHASES OF METABOLISM Catabolism Breakdown of nutrients Release of energy Formation of ATP Anabolism Synthesis of molecules from smaller and simple molecules.