Its range includes the Florida Keys in the US, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean and most of the Brazilian coast. On some occasions, it is caught off the coasts of the US states of New England off Maine and Massachusetts.
In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it occurs from the Congo to Senegal. Young Atlantic Goliath groupers may live in brackish estuaries, oyster beds, canals, and mangrove swamps, which is unusual behavior among groupers.
They may reach extremely large sizes, growing to lengths up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and can weigh as much as 360 kg (790 lb). The world record for a hook-and-line-captured specimen is 308.44 kg (680.0 lb), caught off Fernanda Beach, Florida, in 1961.
Considered of fine food quality, Atlantic goliathgrouper were a highly sought-after quarry for fishermen. It is a relatively easy prey for spear fishermen because of the grouper's inquisitive and generally fearless nature.
They also tend to spawn in large aggregations, returning annually to the same locations. This makes them particularly vulnerable to mass harvesting while breeding.
Until a harvest ban was placed on the species, its population was in rapid decline. The fish is recognized as “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the Gulf of Mexico.
The species' population has been recovering since the ban; with the fish's slow growth rate, however, some time will be needed for populations to return to their previous levels. Goliath groupers are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, which refer to organisms that are born female and at some point in their lifespans change sex to male.
Males can be sexually mature at about 115 centimeters (45 in), and ages 4–6 years. In May 2015, the Atlantic goliathgrouper was successfully bred in captivity for the first time.
Tidal pools act as nurseries for juvenile E. Tamara. In tidal pools juvenile E.Tamara are able to utilize rocky crevices for shelter.
Besides shelter, tidal pools provide E. Tamara with plenty of prey such as lobster and porcelain crab. The Atlantic goliathgrouper has historically been referred to as the “Jewish”.
It may have referred to the fish's status as inferior leading it to be declared only suitable for Jews, or the flesh having a “clean” taste comparable to kosher food ; it has also been suggested that this name is simply a corruption of jaw fish or the Italian word for “bottom fish”, Giuseppe. In 2001, the American Fisheries Society stopped using the term because of complaints that it was culturally insensitive.
^ Lovato, Cleo nice Maria Cardozo; Soars, Bruno Clears; Begot, Tiago Octavio Buffalo; Montage, Luciano Coach de Assis (January 2016). “Tidal pools as habitat for juveniles of the Goliath grouper Epimetheus Tamara (Lichtenstein 1822) in the Amazonian coastal zone, Brazil”.
Risky, Delaney C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H. (2015). “ Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephrine, Epinephrine) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species”.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epimetheus Tamara. It possesses a robust and elongated body, with a wide head in comparison to its small eyes.
What’s more, the base of the dorsal fin stands out as being covered with scales and thick skin. Its yellowish, grayish or olive-toned coloring with small spots help the Atlantic goliathgrouper blend into its environment.
The majority of these gigantic fish live in deep waters, near rocky areas with coral and mud. Their geographic location is, for the most part, the American coast from Florida down to southern Brazil.
It’s also worth pointing out that there are also Atlantic Goliath groupers living along the African coast from Senegal to the Congo. The enormous size of this fish, along with its great gastronomic value, make it a much sought-after catch for fishermen.
However, its slow growth and low reproduction rate make it one of the most susceptible species to extinction. The Atlantic goliathgrouper, whose scientific name is Epimetheus Tamara, is a grouper species characterized by its large dimensions.
The Atlantic goliathgrouper goes by several other names, including Jewish and Tamara and many local nicknames. Historically, its size has made it popular among fishers and merchants to the point that it became the object of recreational competitions.
Furthermore, its meat stands out for its nutritional value and renowned taste, similar to that of the common grouper. Common Name Grouper Animalia Kingdom Phylum Chordata Class Osteichthyes Order Performed Family Serranidae Genus Species Epimetheus SPP.
The word grouper comes from the Portuguese name, group, which has been speculated to come from an indigenous South American language. First it’s worth mentioning that due to the number of genres of this family it’s impossible to give a unique description for each of them.
Groupers can reach very large sizes, having found in the Mediterranean and in the gulf of Nicola, Costa Rica, specimens of 150 kg of weight and 1.70 meters in length with an age of 50 years. Groupers usually live in rocky areas of temperate and tropical waters in depth ranges from four to three hundred and fifty meters.
As for their behavior, it’s worth mentioning that they are characterized as solitary creatures that feed on small fish and one that other crustaceans, and even octopus. In the book «Vitoria Art» of the Marquis de Villena (XV century) it was mentioned as a usual food.
The trumpet fish (Autosomes Chinese) usually hide floating on large groupers from where they suddenly emerge to attack their prey by surprise. Some groupers are so huge that when they open their mouths to feed, they create a suction that is powerful enough to inhale small prey.
In addition to their possible great size, another defense that some groupers have is the ability to change the color of their skin. Epimetheus marginates has a large mouth with prominent lips ; its dorsal fin is long and allows it to move quickly over short distances.
In terms of behavior it’s worth mentioning that they are solitary and territorial specimens, (a bit sullen). As for reproduction it’s the characteristic of the species however its transformation to male is possible at seven years of age depending on where it’s.
The Dusky grouper feeds on mollusk especially octopuses and crustaceans and some small fish occasionally. Epimetheus marginates has two distribution centers, the main one being the eastern Atlantic from the west coast of Iberia south along the western coast of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope, extending east into the south-western Indian Ocean, as far as southern Mozambique, with doubtful records from Madagascar and possibly Oman.
The Atlantic goliathgrouper inhabits an average of 46 m deep and generally less than 100 m, in a wide variety of habitats, including reefs, mangroves, underwater grasslands, estuaries or deeper waters. It feeds mainly on crustaceans, (specially on spiny lobsters) as well as turtles, octopus and fish, including rays and even sharks.
It reproduces in summer, when up to 100 mature individuals congregate in a small area to spawn at a depth of 15 to 30 m. Due to the weight and size they can reach, only adult specimens that have already fulfilled their reproductive function are fished.
This is a common benthic fish in the coral reefs of the western Atlantic Ocean, between Florida (in the US) and northern Brazil, also occupying the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Its worth mentioning that this a solitary predator that feeds mainly on other fish and various invertebrates, such as crabs and mollusks.
To reproduce, they gather in large concentrations to perform the annual spawning, on nights near the new moon. This species is typical in the coastal areas of the western Atlantic from southern Brazil to North Carolina in the USA existing also specimens in the Gulf of Mexico.
The red grouper fish has a moderate size; the standard specimen is 1.25 meters long and weighs approximately 23 kilos. It should be noted that there is also the possibility of changing color in the head or other part of the body which may turn white.
This fish is usually sedentary and like the other groupers change sex between seven and twelve years of age. Their diet is based on crabs, young lobsters, and shrimps and occasionally feeds on some fish.
This species has an extended pelagic larval phase of forty days before settling in the coastal habitat as juveniles. The spawning takes place on the high seas between the months of January to June, reaching its maximum level in May.
This is due to the change in pressure that the animal suffers ; most of the catches are made in the Gulf of Mexico. Its coloration is reddish brown with dark spots and bars and is the most abundant small grouper in the northern Gulf of California.
Their diet is based on fish and crustaceans, for example, blackberry crab, and studies have shown that this specimen has the characteristic solitary behavior of the mere species. The Malabar grouper fish is distributed along the tropical waters of the Indo-Western Pacific area from the east coast of Africa to the Tonga Islands, including the Red Sea.
This grouper lives in diverse habitats, such as lagoons, mangroves, coral and rocky reefs, sandy and muddy bottom areas between 2 and 150 meters deep. On the other hand, juvenile specimens prefer lagoons or brackish areas, which is why it has been considered as a freshwater grouper.
The majority of fishermen take this fish in reproductive age which results in a considerable reduction in the number of specimens of groupers in the world’s oceans. In 2011, some studies showed that the groupers had suffered a reduction of 80% of its total population ; although there are no signs that overfishing has decreased, in the USA.
There are currently many invasive species in marine ecosystems that are found around the world the Ragged finned fire fish being one of them which has been distributed throughout the ocean of the coast from the Caribbean. However, the nutrients found in groupers aren’t that considerable compared to other foods such as whole grains, legumes, liver among others.
Such nutrients are carbohydrates, fats and proteins which are very important for the formation of red blood cells, the transformation of genetic material, the proper functioning of the nervous system among others. Its worth mentioning the groupers’ meat also has an interesting amount of vitamin E that has an antioxidant action in the body.
Some researches that have been carried out shows heavy metal concentrations in fish due to the contamination of the water where they live. Long-lived species, together with fish that occupy a high place in the marine food chain have higher concentrations of mercury and this can negatively affect the health of the human being.
The danger of eating contaminated mercury foods depends on the species, its size and lifetime. In the case of grouper, all species have a high amount of mercury since they live close to 50 years and consume a wide variety of marine organisms.
It’s suggested to consume this fish moderately and preferably fresh so as not to suffer from mercury poisoning. In the 50s the toxicity of methyl mercury was made public after an outbreak of cerebral palsy and microcephaly in some newborns in a fishing village in Minima ta Bay located in Japan.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) together with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that pregnant women or who plan to be as well as young children avoid eating more than 180 grams of fish per week to decrease the risk of mercury poisoning. Cases of ciguatera (food poisoning) have also been reported following the consumption of Epimetheus lanceolatus meat.
To do this, cut the groupers into individual fillets and bathe them in the mixture you prepared in step three of lemon, salt and pepper. While the grouper with bakers is in the oven, we will take the olive oil with a little garlic paste over low heat so that it is infused.